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嵩山地质野外实习报告: 陈 洁

发布时间:2016-07-27 09:08:30 点击:

 

PINGDINGSHAN UNIVERSITY

  嵩山地质游记

  Songshan geological blogs

  School (Department): College of tourism and planning

  Professional grade: 15 Geographic Science

  Name: Chen Jie

  To: 151060102Instructor: Zhao Yuming Geng Pengxu

  May 2016

  院 (系): 旅游与规划学院

  专业年级: 15级地理科学

  姓 名: 陈 洁

  学 号: 151060102

  指导教师: 耿鹏旭 赵玉明

  二零一六年五月

  目录

  第一章 引言........................................... 2

  第一节 实习目的.................................... 2

  第二节 实习意义.................................... 2

  第二章 嵩山地质公园介绍................................ 3

  第三章 实习路线与内容................................. 5

  第一节 路线一...................................... 5

  第二节 路线二...................................... 7

  第三节 路线三...................................... 7

  第四节 路线四...................................... 9

  第五节 路线五..................................... 11

  第六节 路线六..................................... 12

  第四章 心得体会...................................... 12

  Catalog

  Chapter 1 Introduction 2

  The first internship purpose 2

  Second section practice significance 2

  The second chapter introduces the Songshan Geological Park 3

  The third chapter is the practice course and content 5

  Section 1 route 5

  Section second route 7 two

  Section Third Route 7 three

  Section fourth Route 9 four

  Section fifth route 11 five

  Section sixth route 12 six

  The fourth chapter experience 12

  第一章 引言

  第一节 实习目的

  本次实习的主要内容和意义是学会辨别几类典型岩石的特征,掌握地质野外实习的基本方法,懂得如何正确使用地质锤,罗盘,放大镜。对实习地区的地层、岩石、地质构造有基本的了解,在实践的基础上加强对课本知识的理解,理论知识到野外能够解释多种现象,以实践促学习,加强和培养学生的实践能力。通过实习,培养出用地质观点观察和分析实际问题的能力,学会观察分析褶皱、断裂特征,辨认和分析河流地质作用的能力,从而进一步明确了地质及地貌与现实紧密结合的治学思想。

  第二节 实习意义

  我们此次实习的目的地为嵩山地区,目的是了解、认识和学习嵩山地区的地质与地貌现象,将在书本上学到的知识运用于实践,培养我们的实践能力。我们主要实习了以下内容,嵩山地区的岩石,断层,褶皱,地质构造,地壳运动的发展,地貌和水文,还采集了一些岩石标本和绘制一些地质地貌素描图等内容。此外,我们游玩了少林寺、嵩阳书院、嵩山等美丽的自然景观,这次野外实习值得每位同学一生去回味。嵩山地区的地质地貌特别典型,好多前辈在这里留下了大量的科研成果,我们要好好学习,学习他们不怕苦不怕累,严谨科学的精神。此次实习收获颇丰,我们将终身受益。

  第二章 嵩山地质公园介绍

  嵩山的形成已有35亿年的历史,是中华民族的发祥地之一。它历经太古代,元古代,古生代,中生代,新生代,以现今奇特的面貌展现在世人面前,具有最最典型的地质特征。嵩山以其居中而冠五岳,以其古老而蕴奥秘,地质称五代同堂,松柏帏万世。另外,嵩山还是儒教,道教,佛教三教合流的聚集地,以嵩阳书院,中岳庙,少林寺最具代表性。嵩山,尧舜时代称“外方”;夏禹时称“嵩高”、“崇山”;周平王东迁洛阳后,始定“嵩岳山”为中岳,以后各代均称嵩山为中岳。嵩山位于河南省西部,地处河南省登封市西北面,是五岳中的中岳。1982年,嵩山以河南嵩山风景名胜区的名义,被国务院批准列入第一批国家级风景名胜区名单。2004年2月13日被联合国教科文组织地学部评选为“世界地质公园”。

  Chapter 1 Introduction

  Section one practice purpose

  The main content and significance of this practice is to learn to identify the characteristics of several typical rock, grasp the basic methods of geological field practice, know how to correctly use the geological hammer, compass, magnifying glass. A basic understanding of practice area of strata, rocks, geological structure, on the basis of practice to strengthen understanding of textbook knowledge, theoretical knowledge to field to explain a variety of phenomena, and practice study in, strengthen and cultivate the practice ability of the students. Through internships, training in the view of geological observation and analysis of the actual problem ability, learn to observe the analysis of folds, fracture characteristics, identify and analyze the ability of geological action of river, to further clarify the academic thought of Geology and geomorphology and reality closely.

  Second section practice significance

  The purpose of our internship for the Songshan area, the purpose is to understand, understand and learn the geological and topographic phenomena in Songshan area, will be in the book to school to apply the knowledge to practice, to cultivate our practical ability. We practice the following contents, Mt. Songshan area of rock, fault, fold, geological structure, development of crustal movement, geomorphological and hydrological, collected some specimens of the rocks and draw some geological landform sketching diagrams. In addition, we visited the Shaolin Temple, Song Yang college, Mount Songshan in beautiful natural landscape, the field practice is worth each student life going to the aftertaste. Songshan area of the geological landscape is particularly typical, a lot of older generation here left a lot of research results, we have to learn, learn they are not afraid of hardship, rigorous scientific spirit. The internship harvest quite good, we will benefit from life.

  The second chapter introduces the Songshan Geological Park

  The formation of Songshan has 3 billion 500 million years of history, is one of the birthplace of the Chinese nation. It has experienced too ancient, Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic, in today's unique face to show in front of the world, with the most typical geological characteristics. Songshan to the center and crown mountains, with its ancient mysteries and Yun, geological said five generations, all small pine. Also Songshan is Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism Buddhism and Taoism gathered, Songyang academy, Zhongyue temple, Shaolin Temple most representative. Songshan, the era of Yao and Shun said "foreign"; Xia Yu called "Mt. sung" and "Chongshan"; Zhou Dongqian Luoyang, scheduled to start "Songyue mountain" Zhongyue, after each generation said the Songshan Zhongyue. Songshan is located in the west of Henan Province, is located in Dengfeng city of Henan Province in the northwest, is one of the. In 1982, Songshan in the name of Songshan Henan scenic area, was approved by the State Council included in the first batch of state-level scenic spots list. In February 13, 2004 by UNESCO's division of Earth Sciences named the "world geological park".

  2007年5月8日,登封市嵩山少林景区经国家旅游局正式批准为国家5A级旅游景区。嵩山中部以少林河为界,东为太室山,西为少室山,有太阳、少阳、明月、玉柱等72峰。太室山位于河南省登封市北,为嵩山之东峰,海拔1512.92米。登上峻极峰远眺,西有少室侍立,南有箕山面拱,前有颍水奔流,北望黄河如带。倚石俯瞰,脚下峰壑开绽,凌嶒参差,大有“一览众山小”之气势。少室山,东距太室山约10千米。主峰御寨山,海拔1512米,为嵩山最高峰,山北五乳峰下有声威赫赫的少林寺。少室山顶宽平如寨,分有上下两层,有四天门之险太室山和少室山,两座高山层峦叠嶂,绵延起伏于黄河南岸。嵩山属伏牛山系,史书对伏羲和黄帝在伏牛山作为活动的中心,有许多记载。“嵩山天下奥”。嵩山是历代帝王将相封禅祭祀、文人学士游宴讲学、高僧名道及骚人墨客等游历、著书讲学或悟禅、隐居之地,山上名胜古迹众多,居五岳之冠,被誉为文物荟萃宝地。其中有中国六最:禅宗祖庭——少林寺;现存规模最大的塔林 ——少林寺塔林;现存最古老的塔——北魏嵩岳寺塔;现存最古老的阙——汉三阙;树龄最高的柏树——汉封“将军柏”;现存最古老的观星台——告城元代观星台。古时,嵩山名为“外方”,夏商时称“崇高”。《国语·周语》称禹之父鲧为“祟伯鲧”,“崇高”之名缘结于此。据东汉班固《白虎通》曰:“中央之岳,加嵩高宗者何?中岳居四方之中而高,故曰嵩高也。”西周时称“岳山”,周平王迁都洛阳后,定嵩山为 “中岳”,五代以后称“中岳嵩山”。从黄帝到大禹都生活在嵩山一带,他们常游于嵩山之巅。秦汉以降,嵩山中岳大帝的雏形逐渐形成,并不断趋向人格化,虽然其在宗教方面的特殊地位让于五岳之首的岱宗,但仍是国家祀典的五岳之一。嵩山除优美的自然风光外,更以星罗棋布的名胜古迹、亭台楼阁著称。著名的有北魏嵩岳寺塔、汉代嵩山三阙、元代观星台、少林寺、中岳庙、会善寺、法王寺塔、初祖庵、嵩阳书院、刘碑寺题刻等。少林寺位于嵩山少室山北麓五乳峰下。建于北魏太和十九年(495年)。唐贞观年间(627年~649年)重修,唐代以后僧徒在此习武,禅宗和少林寺名扬天下。现存建筑有山门、方丈室、达摩亭、白衣殿、千佛殿等,已毁的天王殿、大雄宝殿等已修复。千佛殿中有著名的明代“五百罗汉朝毗卢”壁画。壁画约300多平方米。塔林在少林寺西,为历代 和尚墓地,自唐到清1000余年间的砖石……中岳嵩山东西长达60千米,共有七十二峰,东为太室山,西为少室山,其主峰海拔1512米,气势磅礴,犹如横卧的巨人,古人说“嵩山如卧”,明朝的著名文学家袁宏道,则说嵩山像一条很清瘦的卧龙,道出了嵩山独特的形体特征。嵩山观星台嵩山是中国古代天文学的摇篮。唐代僧人一行在会善寺编修了《大衍历》。元代天文学家郭守敬又在嵩山建观星台,他在此制定的《授时历》居当时世界领先水平。1961年,观星台被国务院公布为全国第一批重点文物保护。

  嵩山地区是中华文明的发源地,历史悠久,是我国古代最早的政治、经济、文化中心,也是我国古代重要的政治、经济、文化中心之一。嵩山地区不仅风景优美,而且文化高度繁荣,这里道、佛、儒三教荟萃,三教中最早、最具影响力的典型代表,今天依然散发着迷人的魅力。

  May 8, 2007, Songshan, Dengfeng Shaolin scenic area by the National Tourism Administration formally approved as the national 5A class tourist attractions. Central Songshan is bounded by Shaolin River, East Mountain, West Shaoshi mountain, sun, moon, Shaoyang, Yuzhu 72 peak. Mountain is located in Henan Province, Dengfeng City, Songshan is the East peak, 1512.92 meters above sea level. Mount Junji peak overlooking the west stand south Shaoshi, Jishan arch, the Ying River torrents, such as north the Yellow River belt. The rock overlooking, at the foot of the peak and crack, Ling Zheng varies, a "momentum list of small hills". Shaoshi mountain, east mountain about 10 kilometers. The Royal Village Mountain, 1512 meters above sea level, the peak of Songshan, with the celebrated five Rufeng mountain Shaolin Temple. Liantian peak laterally such as Zhai, divided into two layers, there are four Tianmen risks Taishi mountain and Shaoshi mountain, two mountain peaks, rolling on the South Bank of the Yellow River. Songshan is a history of Fu Xi and Funiu Mountain, Huang Di in Funiu Mountain as the center, there are many records. Songshan world olympic". Songshan is ancient emperors to worship ritual, literati banquet lectures, eminent monks and writers and poets such as travel, books and lectures or Zen practice, a retreat, many scenic spots and historical sites on the mountain, in the highest of the five sacred mountains, known as meta-analysis of cultural relics treasure. The Chinese most Saturdays: Zen Zuting -- Shaolin Temple; the largest existing in Tallinn, the Shaolin Temple in Tallinn; existing the ancient tower, Songyue temple tower of the Northern Wei Dynasty; existing oldest que, Han Sanque; the maximum age of the cypress, Han Feng "general Bai"; extant most ancient old Observatory -- and told it in the city, the Yuan Dynasty observatory. In ancient times, Songshan was named "foreign", Xia Shang called "noble"". "Mandarin language week" - called Yu father gun as "evil spirit" gun "," sublime "in the name of the edge node. According to the Eastern Han Dynasty ban "Bai Hu Tong," said: "central Yue, song Gaozong? In Yue Ju square and high, Guyue Mt. sung." The Western Zhou Dynasty called "Yue Shan", King Ping of Zhou capital Luoyang, Songshan will be the "high mountain", after the five generation called "new Songshan". From Huang Di to Yu are living in the vicinity of Songshan, they often travel to Songshan. Qin and Han Dynasties, the prototype of the Songshan Zhongyue emperor gradually formed and constantly tend to personify, although its special status in regard to religion on the first of the five sacred mountains of Dai Zong, but is still the national sacrificial rites of one of the five sacred mountains. Songshan in addition to the beautiful natural scenery, more famous for many places of historic interest and scenic beauty, pavilions, terraces and open halls. Famous Songyue temple tower of the Northern Wei Dynasty, the Han Dynasty Songshan Sanque, Yuan stargazing Taiwan, Shaolin Temple, Yue Miao, Shan Temple, the king temple, Chuzu um, Songyang academy, Liu Temple Monument inscription and. Shaolin Temple is located in Songshan Shaoshi mountain mountain five rufeng. Built in Northern Wei Wo nineteen years (495 years). The Tang Dynasty (627 years to 649 years) rebuilt after the Tang Dynasty Buddhist monks in martial arts, Zen and the famous Shaolin Temple. The existing building has Shanmen, abbot room, Bodhidharma Pavilion, white temple, thousand Buddha Temple and, has been destroyed by King Hall, the main hall and has been repaired. The temple is famous for the "five hundred Arhats in the Ming Dynasty Murals Birobong". The mural is about more than and 300 square meters. Tallinn in the west of Shaolin Temple, as the ancient monk cemetery, since the Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty more than 1000 years of masonry...... Zhongyue Songshan things up to 60 km, a total of 72 peaks, east of Taishi mountain, West Shaoshi mountain, the peak elevation of 1512 meters, magnificent, like lying giant, the ancients said Songshan such as lying ", of the Ming Dynasty, a famous litterateur Yuan Hongdao, said Songshan like a very thin Wolong, the Songshan unique physical characteristics. The Songshan Observatory Chinese Songshan is the cradle of ancient astronomy. The Tang Dynasty monk in a temple will be editing the "premium calendar". The astronomers Guo Shoujing and built in Songshan Observatory, where he developed the "calendar time" in the world leading level. In 1961, the observatory was announced by the State Council as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection.

  Songshan region is the cradle of Chinese civilization, has a long history, is the earliest Chinese ancient political, economic and cultural center, is also one of the important political, economic and cultural center of ancient China. Mt. Songshan area not only beautiful scenery, and culture is highly prosperous, here, blend of Buddhism and Confucianism, Taoism in the early, a typical representative of the most influential today still exudes charm.

  第三章 实习路线与内容

  第一节 路线一

  路线:嵩山世界地质公园博物馆→嵩阳书院→启母石

  时间:2016年4月25日

  天气:多云转晴

  内容:嵩山地质博物馆位于河南省登封市城北三公里的嵩山南麓,太室山脚下,坐北朝南,滨河溪水淙淙缠绕,环境幽雅,四季常青,绿树成荫,是一座充满着璀璨宝矿的宫殿。后庭院主要是以标志碑为主体,其造型为一本打开的地学百科全书,五种不同时期岩层中所取的岩石组成五层环形基座,三组台阶分别代表三次前寒武纪区域性地壳构造运动(嵩阳运动、中岳运动、少林运动)走进这座宫殿,你将融入无穷的地质知识的海洋。无论是地质勘探的乐趣,还是通识矿物宝石的兴奋,或是了解地球内部奥秘的冲动,这里都可以让你得到满足。你可能想象不到地下居然还有如此灿烂的东西,更可能激发。接下来我们又去了富有书香的嵩阳书院。嵩阳书院位于嵩山南麓,太室山脚下,因坐落嵩山之阳故而得名也。我们一行游走山间,这里山峦环拱,古柏参天。走近书院,清雅宁静,花香袭人。是个读书写作、讲学、做学术研究的上上之选地。围绕着书院转了一圈,接下来我们又乘车去了启母石,了解了石头的历史故事。

  The third chapter: practice course and content

  Section one route 1

  Route: Songshan World Geological Park Museum, Songyang academy, Kai mother stone

  Time: April 25, 2016

  Weather: cloudy to sunny

  Content: Songshan geology museum is located in Dengfeng City, Henan Province, north of the city three kilometers south Songshan, Taishi at the foot of the mountain sits riverside stream gurgling winding, elegant environment, four seasons evergreen, trees is a full of bright treasure mine's palace. Backyard courtyard is mainly to the monument signs as the main body, its shape for the open the Encyclopedia of, five strata in different periods in the rock composed of five layers of an annular base and three groups of steps represent three Precambrian regional tectonic movement of the earth's crust (Songyang movement, Yue, Shaolin movement) into the palace, you will be integrated into the endless geological knowledge of the ocean. Whether it is the fun of geological exploration, or the excitement of the knowledge of mineral gems, or to understand the mystery of the earth's interior, the impulse here can make you satisfied. You may not have imagined that there is such a splendid thing, it is more likely to stimulate. Next we went to the rich scholarly Songyang academy. Songyang academy is located in the south of Songshan, is located in Songshan because of its foot, hence the name is yang. We walk a line of mountains, mountains arch ring, towering cooper. Approached the Academy, elegant quiet, fragrant flowers. Is reading and writing, lectures, academic research on the election. Around the circle, then we went to the stone stone Qimu, understand the history of the story.

  在登封县嵩山脚下,矗立着一块几丈高的巨石。从巨石上裂下来—块石头,象一尊雕像站立在那儿,相传这就是夏禹的妻子涂山氏变的。冈为涂山氏的儿子叫“启”,所以后人都把这块巨石叫“启母石”。在离“启母石”不远的地方,还立着两根由大块方石头垒成的门柱,上边刻着打猎,农耕的浮雕画。这就是当时大禹的家门口,后人叫“启母阙”。

  At the foot of Songshan County in Dengfeng, stands a few feet tall stone. From the stone to crack down a stone, like a statue standing there, it is said that this is the wife of the son of the painted. Because Tu's son called "Qi", so all the descendants of this huge stone called "Qi mu". In a place not far from the "Qimu stone", with two of the large stone barrier pillars, above engraved with hunting, farming relief painting. This is the time of Da Yu's house, later called "Qimu towers".

  第二节 路线二

  路线:十八盘→少林寺水库西山→采石场

  时间:4月26日

  天气:阴转阵雨

  内容:迎接着清晨的第一缕阳光,我们乘车先去了十八盘,在那里,我们测量了岩石的产状,并画了剖面图,当老师告诉同学们这有很多矿石后,同学们一个个都兴高采烈的去找,别提多开心,在寻找的过程中了解了很多矿石。接下来去了少林水库,少林水库是登封市的一座中型水库,为少林景区提供水资源,水库四周风景怡人,绿水青山,是游览的好地方。

  采石场测量了石头的长宽高,有无节理,明白了捕虏体:外来物质倾入冷却未完全变质,被熔化。并测量了三组节理,一组是275,一组是210,还有一组 164。

  Second route two

  Course: Eighteen sets of Shaolin Temple reservoir hills, quarry

  Time: April 26th

  Weather: overcast to showers

  Content: to meet the first sun rays in the morning, we drove first to the 18 disc, where, we measured the rock occurrence, and draw the profile, when the teacher told the students that there are a lot of ore, the students one by one are elated to find, indescribably happy. In the process of looking for understanding the many ores. Next to the reservoir of Shaolin and Shaolin reservoir is a medium-sized reservoir in the Dengfeng City, provide water resources for the Shaolin scenic spot, around the reservoir scenery, lvshuiqingshan, is a good place to visit.

  Quarry stone measured the length, width and height and jointing, understand the Xenoliths: foreign substances poured into not totally cooling metamorphism, is melted. Three sets of joints were measured, a group of 275, a group of 210, and a group of 164.

  第三节 路线三

  路线:三皇寨→少林寺西山→少林寺

  时间:4月27日

  内容:我们从三皇寨出发,一路上看到了许多关于嵩山地质地貌的简介牌,增加了我们对嵩山地区的了解,尤其是对三大运动和各种节理的了解,经过五个小时的行程,我们来到了著名的少林寺,参观并了解了关于少林寺的人文历史,丰富了我们的阅历。

  三皇寨是一处悬挂于少室山腰的天然山寨。三皇寨林木茂盛,品类繁多;地质类型齐全,岩龄古老,构型奇特,发育完整,裸露良好,在有限的范围内能看到太古、远古、古生、中生、新生五个地质年代的多种地貌,被地质称为”天然地质博物馆”。整个景区山体陡滑,山顶平宽。具有泰山之雄、华山之险、北恒之奇、南衡之秀等特点,以峰奇、路险、石怪、景秀闻名中原。春夏绿林吐翠,百花芬芳;深秋层林尽染,万山红遍;严冬山舞银蛇,原驰蜡象,是中国北方少有的自然景观,因人们为了纪念人祖三皇(天皇、地皇、人皇)在嵩山一带开天辟地之功而命名,踏遍嵩山的寺庙宫观,唯有这里敬奉的神灵游离于三教之外,以人祖为宗,虔诚奉祀。曾有对联称:“跳出红尘三界外,人注白云一洞中”。

  爬山虽然很累,但却领略了那种人间仙境的感觉。随后我们又去了少林寺。少林寺是世界著名的佛教寺院,是汉传佛教的禅宗祖庭,在中国佛教史上占有重要地位,被誉为“天下第一名刹”。因其历代少林武僧潜心研创和不断发展的少林功夫而名扬天下,素有“天下功夫出少林,少林功夫甲天下”之说。少林寺西约三百米处的少室山脚下,有一片中国最大的塔林。它南临少溪,背依龙虎岭,东接伏牛山脉,西依当阳坡,林木葱郁,环境秀美幽雅,这就是著名的少林塔林,它是少林历代高僧、住持方丈的墓寝。塔林中现存从唐至今的各类塔256座,其中元塔47座,仅次明塔的存量。少林寺寺内外碑铭繁多,其中元代碑铭不仅数量可观,且大都具有珍贵的文化价值。它是研究元代宗教、政治、历史、书法艺术、中外交流的不可多得的实物文献。在少林寺甫道右侧“慈云堂”碑廊里,奇碑珍铭琳琅满目。其中有两通面南而居、巍然屹立的大碑,西边的一通就是“大元赠大司空开府仪同三司追封晋国公少林开山光宗正法大禅师裕公之碑”

  Third route three

  Route: Xishan Shaolin Temple, Shaolin Temple, San Juan Village

  Time: April 27th

  We from San Juan walled starting, along the way see many about the geology and geomorphology in Songshan introduction boards, increased our understanding of Songshan area, especially understanding of movement and various kinds of joints, after five hours of the trip, we came to the famous Shaolin Temple, to visit and learn about the humanities and history about the Shaolin Temple and enrich our experience.

  San Juan is a hanging in the walled Shaoshi hillside natural copycat. San Juan walled wooded, category and different; geological type complete, ancient rock age and peculiar configuration, complete development, bare good, over a limited range see Swire, ancient, ancient, students, new five geological age of many kinds of landforms, geology called "natural geological museum". The entire scenic mountain steep, mountain flat width. With Taishan, Huashan, the insurance, the North Heng Qi, the South Heng of the show and so on, with the peak Qi, road insurance, stone strange, Jing Xiu is known in the central plains. Spring, summer, Greenwood tucui, fragrant flowers; late autumn to make stained storied, Wanshan popular; winter Hill dance silver-colored snake like wax, is rare in northern China natural landscape, because the people in order to commemorate Zu San Juan (the emperor, the emperor, the emperor) at Songshan area an epoch-making achievement named, Songshan travels to the temples, only here to worship the gods free from the three religions, the progenitor cases, pious veneration. Once said: "out of the red antithetical couplet realms, note Baiyun cave".

  Climbing although very tired, but a taste of the kind of paradise on earth. Then we went to Shaolin Temple. Shaolin Temple is the world famous Buddhist temple, the Chinese Buddhism Zen Zuting, occupies an important position in the history of Chinese Buddhism, is known as "the first temple in the world". Because the ancient Shaolin monks of painstaking research and innovation and continuous development of Shaolin Kung Fu and is famous all over the world, known as the "world Kung Fu Shaolin, Shaolin Kung Fu Jia Tianxia" said. Shaolin Temple around three hundred meters west of the room at the foot of the mountain, there is a maximum of Tallinn Chinese. It is south facing less to the river, back in accordance with the Dragon Huling, East meets the Funiu Mountains, sunny slope in Xiyidang, lush forests, beautiful environment is quiet and tastefully laid out, this is the famous Shaolin Tallinn, it is the sleep of the tomb of the Shaolin monks and the abbot. Tallinn existing from the Tang has all kinds of 256 towers, one tower 47 yuan, only the stock of Cimingta. Shaolin Temple outside the temple inscriptions there, which is not only a considerable number of inscriptions of Yuan Dynasty, and most of them have the precious cultural value. It is the study of religion, politics, history, calligraphy, art, Chinese and foreign exchange of the rare kind of literature. In Shaolin Temple Fu Road, right "Wan Tang" Beilang, Qi Bei Zhenming a superb collection of beautiful things. Including two pass south side neighborhood, stand tall monument, west of a is "Dayuan gift dasikong Khai instrument bestowed Jinguo with three division public Shaolin mountains Guang Zong Dharma Master Yu Gong monument"

  第四节 路线四

  路线:嵩阳书院→石船→俊极锋→嵩山气象站→卢崖瀑布

  时间:4月28日

  天气:晴

  内容:峻极峰的景色与众不同而异常吸引人的。沿着整齐的台阶向上,路会一下子变得陡峭起来,爬过几段非常陡峭的山路之后就来到了峻极宫。峻极宫背依嵩山峭壁,气势非凡。继续向上,一直爬到白云深处,峭壁之颠,三个多小时即可登顶,这时你就可以体会“嵩高峻极”的感觉了。如果遇到大雾弥漫,不要说峻极了,路都会看不见,可以享受一下仙人的待遇。在这里,有著名的嵩阳运动。“嵩阳运动”是嵩山地区三大运动之一,也是形成嵩山的重要一个阶段。在地球演变的编年史上,地球的年龄约在46亿年左右,而嵩山距今已有36亿年的历史。当整个世界还沉浸在一片汪洋大海之中时,嵩山便横空出世,嵩山嵩阳运动是发生在距今25亿年的一次全球性地壳运动,由张伯声院士于1951年在嵩山南坡发现并命名。“嵩阳运动”地质遗迹界面是划分太古与远古的界限,界面之下是太古宙沉积地层——登峰群;界面之上是古元古代沉积地层——嵩山群。 界面清晰的反映了太古宙末发生的一次广泛而剧烈的地壳运动。这次运动使登封群花岗绿岩建造遭受挤压变质、褶皱造山、侵蚀夷平并形成了具纬向构造格局、多期构造变形和”三个时代”岩浆序列的古陆核。它标志着地球演化早期的一次重大的地质事件。嵩阳运动景点位于嵩山的山腰,峻极宫和中岳行宫的中间。嵩阳运动是嵩山旅游重要一部分,也是研究地质发展过称的重要资料。可以说嵩山见证了整个地球演变的全过程。

  Fourth route four

  Route: Luya waterfall, Songyang academy, Shi Chuan Jun, Songshan meteorological station, polar front

  Time: April 28th

  Weather: Sunny

  Content: the Junji Peak scenery out of the ordinary and abnormal attraction. Walking along the neat step upward, the road all of a sudden become steep, climb a few very steep mountain road to Junji palace. Junji Palace back on the Songshan cliffs, magnificent. Continue to, all the way up to the depths of the clouds, cliff Britain, three hours can climb to the top. Then you can experience the feeling of "Mt. sung Jun pole". If you encounter a heavy fog, don't say Junji, the road will not see, can enjoy the treatment of fairy. Here is the famous Songyang movement. "Songyang movement" is one of the three major sports in Songshan, also formed an important stage in Songshan. In the annals of the evolution of the earth, the age of the earth in about 4 billion 600 million years, while Songshan now has 3 billion 600 million years of history. When the whole world still immersed in the midst of a vast ocean, Songshan and D-Will, Songshan Songyang movement is occurring in dating back to 25 million years of a global crustal movement, by academician Zhang Bosheng in 1951 in the south of Songshan found and named. "Songyang movement" geological interface is divided Swire and ancient boundaries, the interface is Archean sedimentary strata, Dengfeng group; above the interface is Paleoproterozoic sedimentary strata, Songshan group. The interface clearly reflects the occurrence of late Archean an extensive crustal movement. The movement to Dengfeng group granite greenstone building subjected to extrusion metamorphism, orogenic, planation surface and the formation of the latitude to the tectonic pattern and tectonic deformation and "three times" magmatic sequence continental nucleus. It marks a major geological event in the early stage of the earth's evolution. Songyang movement attraction in Songshan mountain, the middle Junji palace and the palace of the mountain. Songyang movement is an important part of Songshan tourism, is also on the important information that the geological development. It can be said that Songshan witnessed the whole process of the evolution of the whole earth.

  爬完俊极峰后,我们又去了嵩山气象站。根据老师的讲解我们知道了气象站能测量实时监测温度、湿度、风速、风向、雨量、气压、太阳辐射、环境气体、土壤温度、土壤湿度、水位、噪声、能见度等多种气象参数,气象观测要素的配置方式可以根据项目的实际情况进行灵和配置,根据配置不同可以组合成不同使用用途的气象观测站,如移动气象站、墒情气象站、森林防火气象站、农林小气候观测站、抢险气象站、应急保障气象站等多种不同使用用途的气象观测站。卢崖瀑布景区内崖壁陡削,奇石林立,花草繁盛,听老师讲,下雨天泉水自山崖逐级跌落,仿似人间仙境,世外桃源。主要景观有卢崖寺、十潭九谷、卢崖瀑布、一线天等。夏秋季节,大雨倾盆,山洪暴发,急流直下,澎湃之声如虎怒豹吼,震雷轰鸣,如果站在瀑布内的石庵下迎日观瀑,则奇光异彩,斑驳灿烂,珠帘碧虹,瞬息万变,那水色、山色、绿林、飞瀑汇合出一幅美丽的图画,五颜六色天然佳景。

  After climbing Jun results, we went to the Songshan meteorological station. According to the teacher's explanations, we know the weather station to a variety of meteorological parameters measurement of real-time monitoring of temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, air pressure, solar radiation, atmosphere, soil temperature, soil moisture, water, noise, visibility, meteorological elements arranged can according to the actual situation of the project of spirit and configuration, according to the different configurations can be combined into different use of meteorological station, such as mobile weather station, moisture and meteorological station, forest fire meteorological station, agricultural microclimate observation station, emergency meteorological station, emergency support weather station a variety of different uses of meteorological observation station. Lou cliff scenic waterfall cliff steep cut, stone buildings, blooming flowers, listen to the teacher, rain Tianquan water fall from the cliff gradually, like fairyland on earth, Xanadu. The main landscape Lu Temple, ten Tan nine cliff Valley, Luya waterfall, line etc.. Summer and autumn and it was raining cats and dogs. Flash floods, rapids Mashimo, surging sound such as the angry tiger leopard roar, thunder roar, if standing in the waterfall stone temple under attack, Guanbao, splendor and patches of brilliant, bead curtain green rainbow, fast changing, Department of that color, mountains, forests, waterfalls a beautiful picture, colorful natural scenery.

  第五节 路线五

  路线:中岳庙后山→石淙河→观星台

  时间:4月29号

  天气:晴

  内容:今天,我们去了中岳庙后山。石淙河,位于河南省登封市东部,是颍河上源左岸支流,因河水击石淙淙有声,故名,又称“龙渊河”、“勺河”、“平洛溪水”。石淙河发源于登封市东北太室山北麓的九龙潭,南流至告成镇双庙村注入颍河,全长35.7公里,流域面积156平方公里。多年平均年径流量2340万立方米。石淙河上游森林植被较好,水流清澈。然而在20世纪90年代起,沿河开发建设许多食疗加工场,污水直接排入河道,大量石粉砂石造成河水污染,淤积严重。另外石淙河河短流急,易发山洪。流域内旅游景点众多。观星台,天地之中历史建筑群建筑之一,位于登封市城东南7.5公里的告成镇周公庙内,距周公测景台二十米,是我国现存最古老的天文台,世界上著名的天文科学建筑物。观星台是一座高大的青砖石结构建筑,由台身和量天尺组成,台身形状是覆斗状,其作用是“昼参日影,夜观极星,以正朝夕”。观星台不仅保存了我国古代圭表测影的实物,也是自周公土圭测影以来测影技术发展的高峰,它反映了我国天文科学发展的卓越成就。

  第六节 路线六

  路线:玉皇庙

  时间;4月30日

  内容:断层产状:倾向160,走向251,倾角41。性质:正断层上盘(新):下盘:石英变质岩 证据:两边岩石不一样,有磨光面,擦痕,暗色矿物附积压碎岩断层越远,石块越大。层面:层与层之间分界面沉积延伸很大。节理:构造原因挤压形成,两盘岩石基本一样。君召太后面断层:早元古代形成石英岩,后来花岗岩倾入,后来二叠系地层形成,发生运动,上盘下降,后来地壳稳定,接受第四纪沉积物。

  第四章 心得体会

  四月下旬,我终于得以启程前往仰慕和期待已久的登封去进行为期六天的实习。在这短暂的六天里,我学到了不少以前不知道的东西,并且更加热爱地理学科,更加喜欢地理教师这个职业了。初识登封,是因中岳嵩山,于是对登封,对嵩山便充满了向往之情,登封,嵩山,期待已久,这都没有让我失望。这是一个环境优美,人口适宜的小城,背靠雄壮巍峨的太室山,西依险峻陡峭的少室山,有少林的威武,书院的底蕴,颍河的灵动,中岳的名气。实属不可多得的中国小城。古有则天登嵩山而封中岳,今有卧龙学子地理实习到登封,观嵩阳运动之雄壮,仰峻极之险峻,惊少林功夫之精深,悟嵩阳书院之厚重,望少室日落之美妙,叹自然之神功,体师生之深情,留一生之难忘。无疑嵩山地质实习给我留下了美好难忘的回忆,这为我以后教师生涯增添了浓重的一笔,为大学生活涂上可灵动的一点。与此同时,我也体味到地质工作者工作的艰辛与劳累,在此,我向他们置于最高的敬意。同时也为我的开路老师和师哥师兄致一声谢谢,正是你们的无畏,才有了我们现在的平坦。对于知识来说,野外实习对于知识的学习可以说是极为有益的,它将课堂上空洞的知识转化为可感可触的实物,不但加深了我对知识的理解,更是提高了我对知识的认识,学习的兴趣。总的来说,实习给我带来了极大的收获,极大的乐趣。

  Fifth route five

  Route: temple mountain, stone, Conghe Observatory

  Time: April 29th

  Weather: Sunny

  Content: today, we went to the temple in the mountain. Stone Conghe., Dengfeng City, Henan Province is located in the East, Ying River source left bank tributaries, due to water hammer Shi Cong Cong sound, hence the name, also known as "dragon Yuanhe", Spoon River "," the Creek ". Stone Conghe originated in Dengfeng city northeast of Taishi mountain Jiulong lake, flows south to the successful Zhen Shuang Miao Cun into the Yinghe River, 35.7 km in length, watershed area of 156 square kilometers. Years of average annual runoff of 23 million 400 thousand cubic meters. Conghe stone forest vegetation upstream is good, clear water. However, in the 1990s, the development along the river to build many food processing, sewage directly discharged into the river, the powder of a large amount of sand caused by water pollution and serious siltation. In addition Conghe stone river short torrent and prone to flash floods. There are many scenic spots in the valley. Observatory, one of the historical buildings building the world, located in Dengfeng City, east south of 7.5 km success Zhen Zhou Gong temple, 20 meters from the beta Zhou Jing Tai is our country extant most ancient observatory, the world famous astronomical science buildings. The observatory is a tall brick structure of the stone buildings, abutment and Hylocereus undatus, body shape is bucket shaped cover, its role is "shadow day and night view of the pole star, is to one day". Observatory not only saved the gnomon in ancient China measuring shadow real, since since the Duke of Zhou ancient sundial measuring shadow measuring shadow technology development peak, it reflects the excellence in astronomical science development in our country.

  Sixth route six

  Route: the Jade Emperor Temple

  Time; April 30th

  Content: fault occurrence: tendency 160, to 251, dip 41. Properties: is in the hanging wall of the fault (New): footwall: Quartz metamorphic evidence: on both sides of the rock is not the same, a polished surface, slickensides, dark minerals in the attached product crushed rock faulting farther, stones. Level: the interface between layer and layer deposition extended to large. Joint: the structure of the cause of the formation of extrusion, the two sets of the same rock. Jun Zhao back fault: the formation of Early Proterozoic quartzite, later granite pour into, later Permian formation, movement, drop on the plate, and later crustal stability, accept the Quaternary sediments.

  The fourth chapter experience

  In late April, I was finally able to travel to Dengfeng to admire and look forward to a long period of six days of practice. In this short six days, I learned a lot of things that I didn't know before, and even more in love with geography, and more like the career of geography teachers. Acquaintance Dengfeng Zhongyue Songshan, so in Dengfeng, the Songshan was full of yearning, Dengfeng Songshan, the long-awaited, which did not let me disappointed. This is a beautiful environment, appropriate population of the town, backed by the majestic towering Taishi mountain, close to steep the Shaoshi mountain, Shaolin martial, college background, smart Yinghe River, Zhongyue fame. It is rare in the Chinese town. Ancient Zetian climb Songshan and seal Zhongyue, this is Wolong students geography practice to Dengfeng, view the Songyang movement of the majestic, Yang Jun is very steep, Shaolin Kung Fu deep convulsion, realize Songyang academy and heavy, hope Shaoshi sunset beautiful, natural magic sigh, and students of deep feeling, leaving an unforgettable. No doubt the geological practice in Songshan left a good memory for me, this for me after the teacher's career has added a strong, for the university life is painted with a little smart. At the same time, I also appreciate the hard work of geological workers and fatigue, in this, I put them in the highest respect. At the same time I open teacher and the brothers Shige induced a thank you, it is your fearless, only we are flat. For knowledge, field practice for the learning of knowledge can be said to be extremely useful, it will classroom empty knowledge transformation for can touch the real, not only deepened my understanding of knowledge, but also improve my understanding of knowledge, interest in learning. In general, the internship has brought me great harvest, great fun.

  .