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嵩山地质野外实习报告

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PINGDINGSHAN UNIVERSITY

  嵩山地质野外实习报告

  Songshan geological field practice report

  School (Department): College of tourism and planning

  Professional grade: 15 Geographic Science

  Name: Xu Yajie

  To: 151060121

  Instructor: Zhao Yuming Geng Pengxu

  May 2016

  院 (系): 旅游与规划学院

  专业年级: 15级地理科学

  姓 名: 徐雅杰

  学 号: 151060121

  指导教师: 耿鹏旭 赵玉明

  二零一六年五月

  目录

  一 前言

  1.1实习任务

  1.2实习目的

  1.3实习时间

  1.4实习地点

  1.5实习线路

  二 实习区概况

  2.1 实习区位置

  2.2 自然、经济概况

  三 地层与岩石

  3.1 地层

  3.2 见到的岩石

  四 构造运动与地质发展简史

  4.1 嵩阳运动

  4.2 中岳运动

  4.3 少林运动

  4.4 玉皇庙断层构造

  4.5 中岳庙后的背斜构造

  4.6 石淙河断层剖面图

  4.7 十八盘

  4.8 地质发展简史

  五 结束语

  Catalog

  1 Introduction 1

  1.1 internship 1

  1.2 internship 1

  1.3 internship 1

  1.4 internship site 1

  1.5 practice line 1

  Two practice area 1

  2.1 internship area 1

  2.2 natural and economic survey 1

  Three strata and rock 1

  3.1 formation 1

  3.2 see the rock 1

  A brief history of four geological tectonic movement and the development of the 1

  4.1 Songyang 1

  The 4.2 Movement 1

  4.3 Shaolin Movement 1

  4.4 Yuhuangmiao fault 1

  4.5 anticline Zhongyue temple after 1

  4.6 stone Conghe fault section 1

  Eighteen 4.7 set 1

  The 4.8 geological development history 1

  Five concluding remarks 1

  一 前言

  2016年4月25日到4月30日,我们院地理科学班的同学在嵩山地区进行了为期一周的地质地貌野外实习。在出发之前,全班开了动员大会,耿鹏旭老师和赵老师交代并安排了各项事宜,强调了实习期间的纪律,并对同学们做了分组安排。同时,我们的实习老师有根据不同专业的需要,分发了实习工具,有锤子、罗盘仪、胶带、量尺等等。在嵩山的一周内,我们先是参观了嵩山地质博物馆,接着按照不同的实习路线分别进行了地质和地貌方面的考察。通过这次野外实习,我们学到了许多关于我们专业的知识,掌握了野外实习的一些方法和技巧,积累了宝贵的实践经验,使我们对自己的专业有了更深的认识,受益匪浅。

  1.1实习任务

  锻炼自己的动手能力,将学习的理论知识运用于实践中,反过来检验书本上理论的正确性。将自己的理论知识与实践融合,进一步巩固、深化已经学过的理论知识,提高综合运用所学过的知识,并且培养自己发现问题、解决问题的能力;学会并能熟练地运用罗盘仪测量岩层产状三要素;学会在野外观察褶皱、断层和不整合等构造现象;学会在野外对各种沉积岩、火成岩和变质岩进行肉眼鉴定和描述;能够印证、丰富和巩固课堂讲授的部分理论知识和技术知识,理论联系实际,初步具有独立分析野外地质现象的能力和良好的野外地质工作与生活习惯。

  1.2实习目的

  首先要了解地质学的概念,地质学是以地球为研究对象的一门自然科学,主要研究地球的物质组成、构造运动、发展历史和演化规律,并为人类的生存与发展提供必要的地质依据。自然界的地质现象往往是各种因素相互作用的产物,错综复杂。我们通过野外实习可以把抽象的地质学理论与实际的地质现象结合起来,使我们真正理解课堂上所学到的知识。通过短期的野外实习对地质学研究的主要内容和特点有一个比较全面的了解;同时通过实习巩固学过的《地质学基础》的课堂内容,加深对课程有关内容的理解;此外,通过实习培养对大自然的热爱,陶冶情操,提高对地质科的兴趣;同时充分认识到地质实践对地质科学的重要性。学会并能熟练地运用罗盘仪测量岩层产状三要素;学会在野外观察褶皱、断层和不整合等构造现象;学会在野外对各种沉积岩、火成岩和变质岩进行肉眼鉴定和描述;能够印证、丰富和巩固课堂讲授的部分理论知识和技术知识,理论联系实际,初步具有独立分析野外地质现象的能力和良好的野外地质的生活习惯。

  1.3实习时间

  2016年4月25日至4月30日

  1.4实习地点

  嵩山,位于河南省登封市。

  1.5实习线路

  第一天:嵩山世界地质公园博物馆、嵩阳书院、启母石;

  第二天:十八盘、少林水库西山、采石场、少林寺;

  第三天:三皇寨、

  第四天:石船、嵩阳运动、峻极峰顶、嵩山气象站、卢崖瀑布;

  第五天:中岳庙后山、黄盖峰、黄盖峰北50米、后沟小背斜、石淙河、观星台;

  第六天:君召玉皇庙断层。

  One preface

  From April 25, 2016 to April 30th, the students in the geography science class in our hospital were in Songshan area for a period of one week. Prior to departure, the class opened a mobilization meeting, Geng Pengxu teacher and teacher Zhao explained and arranged for the matter, stressed the discipline of the internship period, and the students made a group arrangement. At the same time, our practice teachers have according to the needs of different professional, distributed practice tools, with a hammer, compass, tape, measuring tape, and so on. In a week in Songshan, we first visited the Songshan Museum of geology, followed by different practice routes were carried out in terms of Geology and geomorphology. Through the field practice, we learned a lot of knowledge about our professional, master of the field practice of some methods and skills, accumulated valuable experience, enable us to a deeper understanding of their own professional, benefit bandit is shallow.

  1.1 internship tasks

  To exercise their own ability to learn the theory of knowledge used in practice, in turn, test the correctness of the theory of books. The integration of theory knowledge and the practice of their own, to further consolidate and deepen the theoretical knowledge learned, improve the comprehensive use of learned knowledge, and cultivate the ability of discovering and solving problems of their own; learn and skilled use of compass measurement terrane three elements; Institute of field observations in folds, faults and not the integration of structural phenomena; naked eye identification and description of society in the field of all kinds of sedimentary rocks, igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks; to verify, enrich and consolidate the classroom teaching part of theoretical knowledge and technical knowledge, theory and practice, the ability of independent analysis preliminary geological phenomena and well field geological work and living habits.

  1.2 internship purpose

  Concept must first understand the geology, geology is to earth as a natural science research object, mainly the study of the earth material composition, tectonic movement, development history and evolution, provide necessary geological basis for human survival and development. Geological phenomena in nature are often the result of interaction of various factors. We can combine the abstract geological theory with the actual geological phenomena through field practice, so that we can truly understand the knowledge learned in the classroom. Through short-term field practice the main contents and characteristics of geology research have a more comprehensive understanding; at the same time, through the practice to consolidate the learned the basic geology, classroom content, deepen the understanding of the relevant contents of the course; in addition, through the practice to cultivate the love of nature, edify sentiment, improve the Department of geological interest; at the same time fully aware of the geological practice the importance of Geological Sciences. Learn and can skillfully use the compass to measure strata occurrence three elements; learn to in field observation of folds, faults, and unconformity tectonic phenomena; learn to in the field of visual identification and description of various sedimentary rocks, igneous and metamorphic rocks; to verify, enrich and consolidate the classroom teaching some theoretical knowledge and technical knowledge, the combination of theory and practice, initially with ability of independent analysis of field geological phenomena and good geological habits.

  1.3 internship time

  From April 25, 2016 to April 30th

  1.4 internship site

  Songshan, located in Dengfeng City, Henan province.

  1.5 practice line

  The first day: Songshan World Geological Park Museum, Songyang academy, Kai mother stone;

  Second days: Eighteen set, Shaolin reservoir hills, quarry, Shaolin Temple;

  The third day: San Juan village,

  The fourth day: Shi Chuan, Songyang movement, Junji peak, Songshan meteorological station, Luya waterfall;

  The fifth day: temple mountain, Huang Gaifeng, huanggai peak 50 meters north, small ditch anticline, stone, Conghe observatory;

  The sixth day: Junzhao Yuhuangmiao fault.

  二 实习区概况

  2.1 实习区位置

  嵩山位于河南省登封市,东依省会郑州,西临古都洛阳,北临黄河,南靠颍水。登封县交通便利,新郑国际机场是目前距离登封最近的机场,从新郑机场到登封有直达大巴,行程98公里,约需80分钟到达;登封目前没有火车站,可以从郑州火车站和洛阳火车站乘巴士前往;长途汽车也很便利。

  2.2 自然经济概况

  嵩山地区在大地构造上属于华北地台南部边缘的一部分。本区最古老的基底岩层形成在25.8亿年前,当时本区被大海覆盖在经过嵩阳运动,少林运动、中岳运动、燕山运动和喜马拉雅运动以及第四纪新构造运动等地质构造运动,在沉积作用和强烈的风化剥蚀作用下,形成了本区现有的地质地貌情形。汝河,俗称北汝河,北汝河属沙颖河水系,是淮河的二级支流,发源于河南省发源于嵩山县车村镇栗树街村北分水岭摞摞沟,流经汝阳县、汝州市等六个县市。该地区气候特点是嵩山山下全年平均温度14.3℃,山上平均8.5℃,山上年降雨量864毫米,地形以山地丘陵为主,属温带大陆性气候。登封市强势推进文化旅游产业,资源型城市的务实转型。

  登封矿产资源十分丰富。我市已探明的矿产品种达37种,具有储量大、品位高、易开采等优点。其中煤炭探明储量15.8亿吨,远景储量30亿吨,1991年被确定为全国15个重点开发区之一,被能源部定为全国100个商品煤基地之一。铝钒土储量2.4亿吨,是河南省两个铝钒土基地之一。石灰石储量30亿吨。现代装饰材料花岗石储量30亿吨,品种齐全,质量上乘。硅矿储量8亿吨。被明代大药物学家李时珍誉为神奇的“嵩山药石”——麦饭石储量2亿吨。目前已初步形成了矿产品开采、加工、销售的综合性生产经营格局。发展水平好,有很大的开发价值。总而言之,登封市在这几年来经济发展迅速,占地面积逐年扩大,90年代总人口数为55万,1990年GDP为128831万元,嵩山地区旅游收入为120亿。登峰工业不发达,基本上为加工工业但不在登封市区内,多分布在登峰周边地区,在芦店,主要为煤矿业。这里有大量的铁矿,铝铁矿,花岗岩矿加工工业,但规模都不大。

  登封市交通发达便利,铁路,高速公路,很是方便。登封为中华民族农业发祥地之一,但是由于土壤贫瘠,气候干旱,用于灌溉的土壤不多。粮食类作物有小麦,玉米,豆类,经济作物有烟叶。登峰地区峰峦叠嶂、寺庙林立、古迹众多,有吸引旅客的嵩山地质公园,少林寺等众多旅游景点,因此旅游业发展迅速,1990年年接待游客人次为10万,现在年接待人次为2亿。登封的实力不容小觑。

  wo practice area overview

  2.1 practice area location

  Songshan is located in Dengfeng City, Henan Province, east to the capital of Zhengzhou, the ancient capital of Luoyang on the west, north of the Yellow River, south of the Ying river. Dengfeng County, with convenient traffic, Xinzheng International Airport is at present from the Dengfeng nearest airport, Dengfeng have direct bus from Xinzheng airport to, 98 km journey, about 80 minutes to arrive; Dengfeng at present there is no train station, from the train station in Zhengzhou and Luoyang railway station take bus to go. The coach is also very convenient.

  2.2 natural economy overview

  A part of the Songshan area belongs to the southern margin of the North China platform in the tectonic. In this area the oldest basement strata formed 25.8 billion years ago, when this area was the sea covered in through the movement of the Song Yang, Shaolin movement, Zhongyue movement, Yanshan movement and Himalayan movement and quaternary neotectonic movement of tectonic movement and in sedimentation and strong weathering and denudation, forming the existing geological and geomorphological conditions. Ruhe, commonly known as the North Ruhe, North Ruhe genera of Shaying River, is the second tributary of the Huaihe river rising in Henan Province originated in Songshan County town Chestnut Street Village North watershed stack of ditch, flows through the Ruyang County, Luoyang City and six counties. The climate characteristics of the region is the annual average temperature of 14.3 degrees Celsius in Songshan, the average temperature of 8.5 degrees Celsius, the mountain last year rainfall of 864 mm, the main terrain of mountain hills, is a temperate continental climate. Dengfeng City, a strong push forward the cultural tourism industry, resource oriented cities pragmatic transformation.

  Dengfeng is very rich in mineral resources. The city has proven ore products of 37 kinds, with large reserves, high grade, easy to exploit and so on. One of the proven reserves of 15.8 tons of coal, long-term reserves of 30 tons, in 1991 was identified as one of the 15 key development zones, the Ministry of energy as one of the country 100 commodity coal base. Aluminum vanadium reserves of 2.4 tons, is one of the two aluminum and vanadium base in Henan province. Limestone reserves of 30 tons. The modern decoration materials of granite reserves of 30 tons, complete varieties, good quality. Silicon ore reserves of 8 tons. By the Ming Dynasty pharmacologist Li Shizhen known as the magical "Songshan stone" - stone reserves of 2 tons. Has initially formed a mining, processing, sales of integrated production and operation pattern. Development level is good, have great development value. All in all, Dengfeng city in recent years, rapid economic development, covers an area of expansion, the total population in 90s was 550 thousand, 1990 GDP was 1 billion 288 million 310 thousand yuan, Songshan tourism revenue was 12 billion. Dengfeng industrial underdevelopment, basically for industrial processing but not in Dengfeng City distributed in the surrounding area of Dengfeng, in Lu Dian, mainly for the coal mining industry. There are a lot of iron ore, iron ore, granite processing industry, but the scale is not large.

  Dengfeng City, convenient transportation, railway, highway, it is convenient. Dengfeng is one of the birthplace of the Chinese nation, but because of the poor soil, the climate is dry, the soil used for irrigation is not much. Food crops are wheat, corn, beans, economic crops are tobacco. The Dengfeng Area Mountainous peaks, many temples, numerous monuments, tourist attraction of Songshan Geopark, Shaolin Temple and many other tourist attractions, the tourist industry rapid development, 1990 annual tourists is 10 million, now reception of visitors to 2 billion. Dengfeng's strength can not be underestimated.

  三 地层与岩石

  3.1 地层

  嵩山地层发育的比较齐全,太古、元古宙和显生宙均有出露。

  太古宇登封群,主要分布于登封市君召以北地区,总体上呈现近东西向展布,为本区最古老的地层,自上而下分为三个岩组:石牌河组、郭家窑组,老羊沟组。岩性分别是长片角闪岩;斜长角闪片岩;绢云母石英片岩。登封群下部为混合杂岩,包括片麻状花岗岩、混合岩和片麻岩,中部以基性中酸性火山岩为主,上部为浅变质的沉积岩。

  元古宇,分为中元古界五佛山群和下元古界嵩山群。在下元古界嵩山群中有罗汉洞组、五指岭组、庙坡组和花峪组,其中,罗汉洞组的岩性有底砾岩、灰白色后层状粗粒石英岩、千枚岩、绢云母石英片岩;五指岭组有石英片岩、石英岩和千枚岩。中元古界五佛山群有兵马沟组、马鞍山组、葡萄峪组、骆驼畔组、何家寨组,其中,马鞍山组的岩性有底砾岩、石英砂岩。

  古生界中出露了有寒武系的石英砂岩、白云质灰岩;奥陶系的泥质灰岩;石炭系的砂岩、石灰岩、砂质页岩;二叠系的砂岩、页岩、砂砾岩等。

  中生界和新生界的第四纪沉积物,有黏土、砾石等。

  3.2 见到的岩石

  火成岩:花岗岩是分布最广的深成岩类,是酸性岩的典型代表。我们这次在嵩山学习的有两种花岗岩:一种是出露地表的花岗岩,另一种是侵入花岗岩。

  沉积岩:石灰岩,白云质灰岩,泥质灰岩,页岩,第四纪的沉积物有黏土和砾石;

  变质岩:绢云母石英片岩,千枚岩,片麻岩,变砾岩,石英岩,糜棱岩。

  Three strata and rock

  3.1 strata

  The Songshan formation developed relatively complete, the Pacific, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic were exposed.

  Archean Dengfeng group, mainly distributed in Dengfeng City Jun summoned to north area, the overall showing nearly EW trending, the oldest strata, from top to bottom three rock groups: Pai River group, Guo Jia Yao group, the old sheep ditch group. Are the lithology feature of amphibolite schist amphibolite;; sericite quartz schist. Dengfeng group of lower for the mixed complex, including tablets gneissic granites and migmatites and gneisses. Central to mafic intermediate acidic volcanic rocks in the upper shallow metamorphic sedimentary rocks.

  Proterozoic, divided into five middle Proterozoic Foshan group and Songshan group of lower proterozoic. In the Lower Proterozoic Songshan group have Luohandong formation, five Ling group, Temple slope group and spend Valley Group. Among them, Luohandong formation lithology bottom conglomerate, gray and white layered coarse grained quartzite, phyllite, sericite quartz schist; finger ridge group have quartz schist, quartzite and phyllite. The Mesoproterozoic wufoshan group horses ditch group, Maanshan group, Grape Valley Group, camel Pan Group, hejiazhai group, the Ma On Shan Group rock bottom conglomerate, quartz sandstone.

  Paleozoic outcrop in Cambrian quartz sandstone, dolomitic limestone; Ordovician argillaceous limestone; Carboniferous sandstone, limestone, sandy shale; Permian sandstone, shale and sandstone.

  The Quaternary sediments of Mesozoic and Cenozoic, clay, gravel etc..

  3.2 see the rock

  Igneous rocks: granite is the most widely distributed plutonic rocks, is a typical representative of acid rocks. We have two kinds of granite in Songshan: one is the exposed surface of the granite, the other is the intrusion of granite.

  Sedimentary rocks: limestone, dolomite limestone, shale, shale, Quaternary sediments with clay and gravel;

  Metamorphic rocks: sericite quartz schist, phyllite, gneiss, quartzite mylonite, metaconglomerates.

  四 构造运动与地质发展简史

  4.1 嵩阳运动

  嵩阳运动的简介:嵩阳运动是全球构造三大运动之一,也是形成嵩山的重要一个阶段。在地球演变的编年史上,地球的年龄约在46亿年左右,而嵩山距今已有36亿年的历史。当整个世界还沉浸在一片汪洋大海之中时,嵩山便横空出世,嵩山嵩阳运动是发生在距今25亿年的一次全球性地壳运动,由张伯声院士于1951年在嵩山南坡发现并命名。“嵩阳运动”地质遗迹界面是划分太古与元古的界限,界面之下是太古宙沉积地层——登峰群;界面之上是古元古代沉积地层——嵩山群。

  嵩山群属滨海——浅海相沉积,与登封群有截然不同的变质,变形和岩浆活动历史,并以角度不整合覆盖于等蜂群不同层位、不同构造部位上。

  Four a brief history of tectonic movement and geological development

  4.1 Songyang movement

  Songyang movement: Songyang movement is one of the world's three major tectonic movement, also formed an important stage in Songshan. In the annals of the evolution of the earth, the age of the earth in about 4 billion 600 million years, while Songshan now has 3 billion 600 million years of history. When the whole world still immersed in the midst of a vast ocean, Songshan and D-Will, Songshan Songyang movement is occurring in dating back to 25 million years of a global crustal movement, by academician Zhang Bosheng in 1951 in the south of Songshan found and named. "Songyang movement" geological interface is a division of Archean and Proterozoic boundary. Under the interface is Archean sedimentary strata, Dengfeng group; above the interface is Paleoproterozoic sedimentary strata, Songshan group.

  Songshan group of coastal shallow marine facies, and the Dengfeng group has distinct metamorphism, deformation and magmatic activity history, and the angle of the unconformity is covered in the different layers of the colony, different parts of the structure.

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  图1:嵩阳运动剖面示意图

石英岩 砾岩 绢云母片岩

  4.2 中岳运动

  The 4.2 movement

SW260

  Pr2

340 15

  Pr1

80 87

  图2:中岳运动剖面示意图

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  底砾岩 浅变质石英砂岩 绢云母石英片岩

  简介:中岳运动是发生在嵩山地区古元古代嵩山期沉积之后,新元古代五佛山期沉积以前的一次强烈造山运动。五佛山群呈高角度不整合覆于嵩山群及登封群各组之上,可能发生于距今14亿年左右。中岳运动使整个嵩山群(罗汉涧组、五指岭组、庙坡山组、花峪组)协调一致地产生紧密的走向近南北、轴面向西倾斜、向东倒转的复式背斜和复式向斜。如图2所示。

  4.3 少林运动

  少林运动是指发生在晚前寒武世的一次构造运动。在河南省嵩山地区寒武系下统辛集组底部砾岩呈角度不整合覆于新元古界五佛山群何家砦组和马鞍山组之上。典型剖面见于嵩山少林寺附近。其发生时间距今约5.43亿年左右。此运动仅在少林寺地区见角度不整合,其他地区均表现为平行不整合或逐渐过渡关系。

  “少林运动”塑造了嵩山地区的重力滑动构造面貌。中元古界马鞍山群的巨厚层石英岩状砂岩为重力滑动构造的“下伏系统”(基底系统),石英岩状砂岩之上的泥层为“润滑层”,其上覆五佛山群的砂砾岩、砂岩、泥岩、灰岩等一整套碎屑—碳酸盐岩地层为“滑动系统”。形成大小不等,形态各异的滑块、滑体及构造窗、飞来峰。使整个重力滑动构造体系巍伟壮观、多姿多彩。

  “少林运动”造成的角度不整合界面有两处保存完好:

  1、少林寺西山“少林运动”地质遗迹点(王曰伦、王泽九命名处)。不整合界面出露长1000米,宽500米,面积0.5平方公里。界面上、下层序清楚,露头保存良好。为古生界寒武系辛集组底部砾岩层呈角度不整合超覆在中元古界五佛山群何家寨组页岩之上。

  2、塔水磨和关口(讲阳关)“少林运动”地质遗迹点(1:20万许昌幅区调中和王曰伦等在野外工作中发现)。不整合界面出露长800米,宽500米,面积0.4平方公里。界面上、下层序清楚,露头保存良好。为古生界寒武系辛集组底部砾岩层,呈角度不整合超覆于下元古界嵩山群五指岭组三段绢云片岩夹薄层石英岩之上和马鞍山组石英岩之上。

  “嵩阳运动”、“中岳运动”、“少林运动”三次剧烈地壳运动所保留的角度不整合界面遗迹,在当今世界上绝无仅有。是研究前寒武系沉积建造受运动影响挤压变质、褶皱造山、剥蚀夷平等过程乃至地壳演化规律的良好场所。

  Introduction: Zhongyue movement is occurring after the deposition of Paleoproterozoic Songshan in Mt. Songshan area, Neoproterozoic Foshan five sedimentary period before a strong orogeny. Five Foshan group was a high point of view of the Songshan group and Dengfeng group is not integrated over the group, may occur in about 1 billion 400 million years ago. Zhongyue movement the Songshan group (group Luo Hanjian, five Ling group, temple mountain slope group, Flower Valley Group) coordination comments generated close to the near North and south, axial plane westward tilt, to the east of the reversal of the anticlinorium and compound syncline. As shown in figure 2.

  4.3 Shaolin movement

  Shaolin movement refers to a tectonic movement that occurred in the late Cambrian. In Songshan in Henan Province area of Lower Cambrian series Xinji group conglomerate at the bottom of a unconformable covering in Neoproterozoic wufoshan group He Jia Zhai group and Maanshan group. Typical profile found in the vicinity of the Shaolin Temple in Songshan. Its occurrence time is about. This movement is only in the view of the Shaolin Temple area is not integrated, the other regions are manifested as parallel unconformity or gradual transition relationship.

  "Shaolin movement" has shaped the gravity gliding structure in Songshan area. The Mesoproterozoic MAANSHAN group of the thick layer of quartz rock like sandstone gravity gliding tectonic of the underlying system "(substrate), quartz rock like sandstone above the mud layer for lubricating layer and the set cover wufoshan group conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone and limestone clasts - carbonate formation for sliding system. The formation of different sizes, different shapes of the slider, sliding body and structural window, flying peak. The whole system of gravity gliding tectonic Wei Wei spectacular, colorful.

  Shaolin movement resulting from the perspective of the integration of the interface has two well preserved:

  1, Shaolin Temple Xishan "Shaolin movement" geological sites (Wang Yuelun, Wang Zejiu named place). The integration of the interface is 1000 meters long, 500 meters wide, covering an area of 0.5 square kilometers. Interface, the lower order clear, well preserved outcrop. For Cambrian Xinji group at the bottom of the conglomerate reservoir at an angle to the unconformably overlying on the Middle Proterozoic wufoshan group He Jia Zhai group shale.

  2, tower mill and mark (about the Yang Guan) "Shaolin" geological heritage point (1:200000 Xuchang amplitude adjustment and Wang Yuelun etc. in the field found). The integration of the interface is 800 meters long, 500 meters wide, covering an area of 0.4 square kilometers. Interface, the lower order clear, well preserved outcrop. Cambrian Xinji group conglomerate at the bottom layer is angular unconformity overlap in Lower Proterozoic Songshan group finger ridge three groups Duan Juanyun schist clip thin quartz rock and Ma On Shan Group quartz rock on.

  "Songyang movement", "Zhongyue movement", "Shaolin" three violent crustal movement retained the angle unconformity interface remains, in the world unique. Is of Cambrian sediments built motion affected extrusion metamorphism, fold orogeny and erosion process of Yi equality and crustal evolution of good places.

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  4.4玉皇庙断层构造

  4.4 Yuhuangmiao fault

如图3所示: NW320
第四纪沉积物

  P

  图3:君召玉皇庙断层示意图

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  砂砾岩 花岗岩 石英岩

  简介:君召玉皇庙的岩基由花岗岩,主要是风化作用形成了第四纪的沉积物,包括砾石、粘土。其中的石英岩在约18亿年前形成,花岗岩侵入到石英岩里,含铁元素较多,岩石发黑。

  形成过程:早元古代形成石英岩,由花岗岩侵入,再后二叠系岩石形成,发生断裂运动,上盘下沉。地壳稳定后,又接受嵩山沉积物。

  4.5 中岳庙后的背斜构造

  中岳庙,即嵩山中岳庙,世界文化遗产建筑群的遗产点之一。世界道教主流全真道的圣地。

  中岳庙位于河南嵩山南麓的太室山脚下,距河南省登封市城东4千米。中岳庙背倚黄盖峰,面对玉案山,西有望朝岭,东有牧子岗,群山环抱,布局谨严,规模宏伟,红墙黄瓦,金碧辉煌。总面积11万平方米,为中州祠宇之冠,也是五岳中现存规模最大、保存较完整的古建筑群,也是河南省规模最巨、最完整的古代建筑群。

  中岳庙前身是太室祠,最迟在西汉汉武帝时已经存在,原为祭祀嵩山太室山神的场所,随着祭祀山岳制度的消失,中岳庙后来成为道教的活动场所,但仍保留着礼制建筑的特点。中岳庙是中国道教在中原地区活动最早基地。南北朝时期,道教在中国形成,太室祠易名为嵩岳庙,成为中原地区道教活动中心。

  中岳庙是五岳中保存最完整、规模最大的道教庙宇建筑群,基本上保留了清代重修以后的规制。庙中有殿、宫、楼、阁等建筑39座近400间。总面积近11万平方米,中轴线全长650米,共有7进11层建筑,中轴线上的建筑高大雄伟,主殿峻极殿是五岳中最大的殿宇。中轴线两侧分布有古神库、四岳殿、东西廊房、火神宫、祖师宫等多组院落,是道士分别举行祀典和生活的地方。庙内还有古代碑刻73品,汉代至清代的古柏330多棵。完整的建筑布局使中岳庙成为一座主次分明、错落有致、布局紧凑、色调和谐的庞大建筑群。

  Introduction: Jun Zhao Yuhuangmiao batholith consists of granite, mainly is formed from weathering of the Quaternary sediments, including gravel, clay. The quartzite in about 1 billion 800 million years ago, granite intruded into quartzite, iron element more, black rock.

  Forming process: the formation of Early Proterozoic quartzite, consists of granitic intrusions, later Permian rock formation, fracturing movement, upper plate sinking. After the earth's crust is stable, it is also accepted by the Songshan lake.

  After the 4.5 anticline in the

  In the temple, the song mountain temple, one of the world cultural heritage buildings of heritage sites. The mainstream of the Quanzhen Taoism holy land of taoism.

  Temple is located in Henan Songshan south of the room at the foot of the mountain, from the east of Dengfeng City, Henan province 4 kilometers. Zhongyue Temple perched Huang Gaifeng, facing the jade case of hill, West is expected to toward the ridge, the East has mu Zi Gang, surrounded by mountains, strict and precise layout, grand scale, huangwa red walls, resplendent in gold and jade green. With a total area of 11 million square meters, is a crown of Zhongzhou Ciyu and sacred mountains of China's largest existing, save more complete group of ancient buildings, but also in Henan Province the size of the giant and most complete ancient building group.

  Zhongyue temple is the predecessor of the Taishi temple, in the late Western Han Dynasty when the emperor already exists, formerly sacrifice Songshan Taishi mountain place, with the disappearance of the sacred mountain system, Zhongyue Temple later became place of Taoism activities, but still retains the characteristics of ritual buildings. Is the earliest Taoist temple Chinese base activities in the central plains. The northern and Southern Dynasties, Taoism in China formation, its temple was renamed Songyue temple, Taoist activities become the center of central plains.

  Zhongyue temple is one of the Five Sacred Mountains in the preservation of the integrity, the largest Taoist temple buildings, basically retain the rebuilt in the Qing Dynasty after the regulation. Temple in the temple, palace, building, pavilion and other buildings of nearly 400 39. With a total area of nearly 110000 square meters, axis length of 650 meters, a total of 7 into 11 storey building, the axis of the building is tall and majestic, zhudian Jun palace is sacred mountains of China's largest temples. Axis on both sides of the distribution of the ancient god library, Yue hall, East and room Gallery, Vulcan palace, founder of the palace group courtyard, is a Taoist priest were held sacrificial ceremony and living place. There are 73 ancient temple inscriptions of Han Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, more than and 330 cooper. Complete the layout of the building in the temple as a primary and secondary clear, well proportioned, compact layout, color harmony of huge buildings group.

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  4.6 石淙河断层剖面图

  石淙河简介:在今登封市东南15公里的大冶镇西南部,以石淙河流经其下而得名。其山峰秀丽,溪水环绕,为著名胜景。唐久视元年(700)五月十五日,武后则天曾游于此,与群臣会饮、题诗、铭刻等,其遗迹尚存。在今登封市东南15公里的大冶镇西南部,以石淙河流经其下而得名。其山峰秀丽,溪水环绕,为著名胜景。唐久视元年(700)五月十五日,武后则天曾游于此,与群臣会饮、题诗、铭刻等,其遗迹尚存。

  石淙会饮祓禊习俗源远流长,经久不衰,门类繁多,内容丰富,涉及民间文学、传统音乐、传统舞蹈、传统体育游艺、文化空间、民俗等非物质文化遗产多个门类。修禊、踏青、祭祀、祈子、庙会、十三花儿宴席、中和节、游艺、喷瞎话、细吹等多种习俗受武则天影响明显,人们还在石淙河北岸修建了武后圣帝庙,俗称娘娘庙,来祭祀武则天,关于武则天石淙会饮的故事更是脍炙人口。

  如图4所示:

  4.6 stone Conghe fault profile

  Stone Conghe introduction: in this Dengfeng city 15 kilometers southeast of the town of Daye in the southwest, named after the stone Conghe through. The mountain is beautiful, surrounded by water, for the famous scenic spots. Tang long as the first year (700) on May 15th, after Wu Zetian had to swim in this, and courtiers symposium, poems, inscriptions, etc., the surviving relics. In this Dengfeng city 15 kilometers southeast of the town of Daye in the southwest, named after the stone Conghe through. The mountain is beautiful, surrounded by water, for the famous scenic spots. Tang long as the first year (700) on May 15th, after Wu Zetian had to swim in this, and courtiers symposium, poems, inscriptions, etc., the surviving relics.

  Shi Cong Symposium of Fuxi is of long standing and well established, enduring, in various categories, rich content involving folk literature, traditional music, traditional dance, traditional sports and recreation, culture, folklore, and other non-material cultural heritage, multiple categories. Xiuxi, outing, sacrifice, pray, temple fairs, thirteen flowers feast, Zhonghe Festival, entertainment, spray lie, fine blowing various customs was obviously affected by the influence of Wu Zetian, people still stone Conghe North built the Wu Shengdi temple, commonly known as Niangniang Temple, to offer sacrifices to Wu Zetian, Wu Shi Cong Symposium on the story is well-known.

WN300
SW234 12 WN350 52
白云质灰岩e 溶洞
页岩夹灰岩 断层角砾岩

  Dolomite limestone cave

  Shale limestone fault angle conglomerate

  图4:石淙河断层剖面示意图

  4.7 十八盘

  十八盘的地理位置:经度112.92767E,纬度34.53153N。

  海拔:624米。

  十八盘断层是正断层,上盘下降,下盘上升。如图5所示:

  Eighteen 4.7 set

  Eighteen sets of geographical position: longitude 112.92767E, latitude 34.53153N.

  Altitude: 624 meters.

  The eighteen disc fault is a normal fault, hanging down, a rose. As shown in figure 5:

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C2

  02

  寒武纪 寒武纪

图5:十八盘断层剖面示意图

  石灰岩

  4.8 地质发展简史

  位于我国河南中部的嵩山山脉是世界上最古老的山脉之一,这里连续完整地显露着地球演变的五大地质历史时期的地层层序,古老的岩石系形成于23亿年前,此前,本区是一望无际的大海,据中外地质学家考察,区内岩石发育完整,在地球发展历史上,历经太古代、元古代、古生代、中生代、新生代,习称为“五代同堂”。同时,在嵩山不足20平方公里的范围内,清晰地保存着分别距今约25亿年、18.5亿年、5.7亿年的三次全球性地质构造运动的遗迹。

  地质历史上,经过23亿年的“嵩阳运动”、8亿年前的“中岳运动”巨厚的石英砂岩开始慢慢隆起,并且褶皱成山。“中岳运动”后,地壳又慢慢地被夷平、下降,先是粗大颗粒的砾岩开始沉积下来,以后是砂岩、泥岩,一直到钙镁的石灰岩,然后地壳又慢慢被海水淹没。5、6亿年前的“少林运动”,才结束了地质史上的元古代,进入了古生代的寒武纪和奥陶纪。又经过了约两亿年,此处地壳上升至海平面以上,因其受风化和剥蚀作用,形成了嵩山地区。两亿三千年前后,中国的版图上又发生了一次延续很长时间的地壳运动,南北广大地区的“燕山运动”,嵩山地区受到了南北方向的推挤,形成了现在嵩山以东西方向为主轴的走势。

  化石在晚奥陶纪以前这里的底层下沉形成浅海相,接受沉积以后底层慢慢抬升被风化剥蚀,到中石炭纪后底层又缓慢下沉形成浅海相,从而形成平信不整合地形因而在石炭纪底层中存有大量浅海生物化石,如珊瑚、蜿足类、海百合、蜓类化石。

  五 结束语

  在实习进行的过程中,我遇到的最主要的困难就是脑子里没有像样的知识网络或者说是地质体系,由这所引发的一系列问题才是我处处碰壁的原因所在。在野外观察,信息量繁重,干扰条件太多,自己没有坚硬的理论来作为依托是根本不行的。虽然旁边有老师的细心启发和讲解,可是在野外还不像在教室,书本就放在面前触手可及的地方,随时可以翻查自己不懂的知识点,一旦知识点反映不过来,再加上野外实地中必须去掉相当大一部分无关的现象,才能中从挑选出有价值的信息。对于我来讲,没有雄厚的知识储备做铺垫,无怪乎会产生对老师的启发询问产生不知所措的感觉了。

  在野外实地观测,一个观察点和下一个观察点之间应该相隔很长的距离,更有甚者一天就只能观察一个地点,而每一个点都有其特殊的成因,构造,形态,以及以后将会产生的变化等等,所以对于每一个观察点的记录与测量都是相当重要的,这是为以后的进一步分析整理得到结论都是至关重要,由于是第一次野外实习,野外行动,记录,测量都没有任何经验,完全靠老师的讲解才能记录,对于有些测量还得在老师的帮助之下才能完成得到数据,这些都是缺少实习经验所致,尚可理解,可是有了这次经验之后,对于以后学习及野外实习便能有更好的指导。

  通过此项调查活动,使我们的观察能力、动手能力、思维能力等有了很大的提高,使我们亲身体会到了地质考察的乐趣,激发我们关注大自然、热爱大自然的情怀,从中使我们初步掌握了科学的野外地质工作方法,开拓了视野,丰富了知识,同时也尝到了野外调工作的艰辛与甘甜。

  实习中耿老师的严谨认真,赵老师的幽默、严谨给我留下深刻的印象。在此次实习中我收获挺大的,亲身感受了做一个地质人的艰辛和伟大。我们全班同学和两位老师一起爬山,一起欢笑,互相鼓励,互相帮助,共同克服困难。期待下一次的旅途。

  The 4.8 geological development history

  Located in Central China's Henan Songshan Mountains is one of the oldest mountains in the world, here for completely reveals the evolution of the earth's five geological history period of sequence stratigraphy, ancient rock formation at 2.3 billion years ago after, this area is the vast expanse of the sea, according to Chinese and foreign geologists study, Zone rocks have the complete, in the development history of the earth, after too ancient, Yuan ancient, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic, Xi called "five generations. At the same time, in the range of less than 20 square kilometers of Songshan, the three global geological tectonic movement, which are about 2 billion 500 million years ago, from.

  Geological history, after 23 million years "Songyang movement", 8 billion years ago, "Zhongyue movement" giant thick quartz sandstone began to slowly uplift and fold Chengshan. "Zhongyue movement", the earth's crust and slowly was leveled to the ground, and decreased, first start coarse particle conglomerate deposited, is the future of sandstone and mudstone, limestone to the calcium and magnesium and crust and are slowly being submerged. 5, 6 million years ago, "Shaolin" before the end of the geological history of the Proterozoic, entered the Paleozoic Cambrian and Ordovician. And after about two hundred million years, the earth's crust rises above sea level, because it is affected by weathering and erosion, forming the Songshan area. 230m years before and after, the territory of China and a continuation of a long time of crustal movement, Yanshan movement in a vast area of North and south, Mt. Songshan area by north-south direction of the push, now form the Songshan in east-west direction for the spindle of the trend.

  Fossils in the late Ordovician before here at the bottom of the sink formation of neritic facies, sedimentary bottom slowly lifting weathering and denudation. In Carboniferous bottom and slowly sinking into shallow marine, resulting in the formation of ordinary unconformity terrain and in the bottom of the Carboniferous being a lot of shallow water fossils, such as coral, Wan, sea lilies, and fusulinid fossils.

  Five concluding remarks

  In the process of practice, I met the main difficulty is no decent mind knowledge network or geological system, a series of problems caused by the is I everywhere runs into a wall of reason. In the field observation, the amount of information is heavy, interference is too much, he did not have a hard theory to rely on as a foundation is not. Although there is next to the teacher carefully inspired and explain, but in the wild also unlike in the classroom, books were lying in front of reach the place, ready to be turned over to check they don't understand the knowledge points, once knowledge is reflected not to come over, plus the wild field must be removed a large portion of unrelated phenomena, can from the selection of the valuable information. For me, there is no abundant knowledge reserve to pave the way, it is no wonder that will produce the teacher inspired interrogated to produce the feeling of being overwhelmed the.

  In field observation, between an observation point and a point of observation should be separated by long distances, even one day can only observe a place, and each point has its special cause, structure, morphology, and will produce change and so on, so the measuring and recording of at each observation point is very important, this is for further analysis of the obtained conclusion is very important, because it is the first time the field practice, field operations, measurement records, without any experience, completely rely on the record to explain the teacher, for some measure is under the help of the teacher in order to complete the data, which are caused by the lack of practice experience, can be understood, but after having this experience, for the future study and field practice will have better guidance.

  Through the survey activities, our observation ability, hands-on ability, thinking ability, has been greatly improved, enable us to experience to geological investigation of fun, inspire us to pay more attention to nature, nature loving feelings, from enable us to initially mastered the science of geological methods, broaden their horizon, enrich the knowledge, but also tasted the hardships of field work and sweet.

  In the practice of the Geng teacher carefully, Mr. Zhao's humor, rigorous impressed me. In this internship, I gain a large, personally feel the hardships and great to do a geological man. Our classmates and two teachers together to climb mountains, laugh together, encourage each other, help each other, together to overcome difficulties. Looking forward to the next trip.