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嵩山地质游记

发布时间:2016-07-27 09:05:18 点击:

PINGDINGSHAN UNIVERSITY

  嵩山地质游记

  Songshan geological blogs

  School (Department): College of tourism and planning

  Professional grade: 15 Geographic Science

  Name: Miao Miao

  To: 151060127

  Instructor: Zhao Yuming Geng Pengxu

  May 2016

  院 (系): 旅游与规划学院

  专业年级: 15级地理科学

  姓 名: 苗若凡

  学 号: 151060127

  指导教师: 耿鹏旭 赵玉明

  二零一六年五月

  登封行

  经过近一年的校园课堂实习,我们迎来了大学生涯的第一次野外实习。首先,我们这次实习的地点是河南省登封市,来自平顶山学院旅游与规划学院15级地理科学专业的48名同学在教学经验丰富的耿老师和赵老师的带领下于2016年4月25日上午8点在校门口整装待发,开启了我们的登封之行。

  凉凉的微风一路荡着我们雀跃的心,在这个舒适的日子里,经过两个小时左右的车程,在4月25日上午11点左右,我们便抵达了已在脑海中描摹千遍的城市——登封。稍作休整,吃完午饭,我们全体成员便在预定地点集合,准备奔赴第一站——嵩山地质公园博物馆。

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  仅闻其名,就令人神往。步入大厅,入眼而来的便是玻璃下巨幅的嵩山地貌模型。从左到右,巍峨雄俊的山岭依次是少室山、太室山、五指岭,涵盖了整个嵩山地区。嵩山地质奇就奇在它的“五代同堂”。何为“五代同堂”呢?即为太古宙、元古宙、古生代、中生代、和新生代五个地质年代在嵩山这一地区并存的现象。继续往里边走,展览台上形态各异、琳琅满目的各种岩石标本令同学们目不暇接,惊诧不已。白色透明的石英晶簇如盛放的雪色烟花、半透明的绿色萤石在黑暗处透出光来、灰白相间的菊花石仿佛千年的水墨丹青,典雅端庄。最最吸引我们的,还有发生在这里的晋宁运动、嵩阳运动、中岳运动和少林运动。

  告别地质博物馆,沿着回廊栈道,我们来到今天的第二个目的地——嵩阳书院。

  跨过高高的门槛,穿过厚厚的石拱门,映入眼帘的是几棵栉比的参天古树,树下藤蔓苍劲,无不蕴满文人墨客的儒雅气息。左边藏书阁墨香四溢,潇洒恣意的笔锋流转后,留下前人的真书正楷。正堂中,历代文人的画像记录着书院走过的风雨路程。古井,古树,古池,古屋。大唐碑、大将军、二将军还有石刻,无不讲述着先祖们的故事。继续往山角走,爬一段山路,启母石便到了。因大禹的妻子,启的母亲而得名的启母石宽约6至7米,主要成分是石英岩。因节理作用或是冻融风化裂缝扩大从山上滚落下来停留至此而形成。抬眼看去,整体以白色为主,部分为水平沉积作用形成的黑线和岩浆侵入形成的白色条带状岩脉。到此,第一天的行程就告一段落。

  Dengfeng line

  After nearly a year of campus classroom practice, we ushered in the first field practice of College career. First, we this internship location is in Dengfeng City, Henan Province, Pingdingshan Institute of tourism and planning, 15 geography science specialized 48 students from in Geng teacher with rich teaching experience and Mr. Zhao's lead on April 25, 2016 at 8 in the morning at the school gate ready opens up our Dengfeng.

  Cool breeze swing our joy, in this comfortable day, after about two hours by car, on April 25, around 11 o'clock in the morning, we reach the has in mind in depicting a thousand times the city Dengfeng. A little rest, after lunch, we are all members of the will at the predetermined place collection to the first station of Songshan Geopark Museum.

  Only heard his name, is fascinating. Into the hall, see come is a huge glass under the model of Songshan landform. From left to right, the towering mountains are Xiong Jun, Wuzhi Mountain, Shaoshi mountain ridge, covering the entire Songshan region. Geology of Songshan Qi Qi in its "five generations". What is the "five generation"? For the phenomenon of the Archean, Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and the new generation of five geological age in the area of Songshan coexist. Continue to go inside, exhibition table shapes, an array of various rock samples to make students dizzying, startled. White transparent quartz druse as blooming snow color fireworks, translucent green fluorite in revealing the darkness light, gray and white chrysanthemum stone is like a thousand years of Chinese painting, elegant and dignified. Most attract us, there happened here in the Jinning movement, Songyang movement, movement and movement of Shaolin mountain.

  Farewell to the geological museum, along the corridor along the cliff, we came to today's second destination: Songyang academy.

  Across the high threshold, through the thick stone arches, greeted the is few trees than the comb of towering old trees, tree down the vine is vigorous, without exception, Yun with the literati of the refined atmosphere. The left jangseogak ink overflowing, clear wanton writing circulation after leaving the previous book block. Zhengtang, literati portrait Recording Academy through the stormy journey. Well, old trees, ancient pond, nagoya. Datang monument, two generals, generals and stone, telling the story of all ancestors. Continue to go to climb a mountain angle, then to the stone mountain, Qi mu. Because of Da Yu's wife, and the mother named Qi Mu stone width of about 6 to 7 meters, is the main component of quartzite. Because the joints or freeze-thaw weathering cracks expand from the mountains down to stay so far formed. Lift to see, the whole is given priority to with white, black and magma formed part of the horizontal sedimentation and invasion and the formation of the white ribbon rock veins. Here, the first day of the trip will come to an end.

  第二天,伴随着漫天的大雾和湿漉漉的空气,我们首先来到第一个观测点 ——十八盘。近在眼前的陡峻小山坡因中间的断层分为左右两部分。根据同一岩层错位的状况和上下盘的位置,我们可以判断出来眼前的断层为正断层。断层面左边为上寒武统形成的石灰岩,右边从下到上依次为上寒武统形成的灰岩、中奥陶统形成的泥质灰岩、上石炭统形成的灰岩,并且两两之间形成平行不整合接触关系。接着,在老师的带领下,我们用GPS对当地进行定位,用罗盘测量了断层面

  和岩层的走向、倾向和倾角。离开十八盘,跟随老师的步伐,我们慕名来到第二个观测点——少林水库西山。走过水库,爬上西边的小坡,我们便来到了典型的中岳运动的遗址。来到山腰,我们最先看到的含有均匀砾石的大块岩石便是底砾岩。作为上一个旋回的终结和另一个旋回的开始,底砾岩是由突然的构造运动形成的。

  时至中午,吃了午饭,我们辗转到这一天的第三个观测点采石场(飞机场)。出落于嵩山大背斜,形成于古元古界的花岗岩岩株在此地的面积竟达55平方千米之多。经过长期的风化作用,该地就形成了我们脚下所踩着的广阔夷平面。上面覆盖有一层河底、河床、河漫滩沉积物,因此,成就了我们眼前的这幅富含黏土的样子。

  接着,我们远远看到了海拔约412米的石称。庞然大物的它富含石英、正长石、斜长石、黑云母、角闪石等矿物,具有光滑节理面和粗等粒显晶结构。随后,我们来到石料厂,随地可见的花岗岩多为均匀块状结构,便于切割,所以多用做建筑用材。到此,第二天的行程也接近尾声。

  第三天,4月27日,阴沉沉的天气仿佛稍不留神就要大雨倾盆。第一站,我们坐车来到三皇寨风景区,已是山腰的入口台阶陡峭。爬着几近七八十度的台阶,迎面的山峰古松摩云,危崖欲倾。同斜复式

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  尖棱褶皱的大背斜上部陡峭,下部平缓,岩性坚硬,极耐侵蚀,由此形成别具一格的山体形象。缘山攀援而上,“猴子观云海,石林朝青天”幻仙幻美。继续走,就看到了由三组不同节理交叠而成的悬天洞,裂隙水从石坎里渗出来,机巧如此。再往前走,仙人洞,一线天,石力,连天吊桥,风格迥异。经过一上午的攀爬,我们终于来到了今天的第二个观测点——少林西山,它也就是距今约5.43亿年的少林运动的典型遗迹。现在崖前,我们可以清晰的看到由下到上三层岩层的变化,它们分别是新太古界五佛山群何家寨组的紫红色页岩、底砾岩、寒武纪辛集组关口砾岩夹沙砾岩。看完岩石,怎能不去嵩山的千年古寺——少林寺,也就是我们今天的第三个观测点。步入少林广场,首先看到的便是密集的高僧塔林,再往前走,练功的少林弟子,塔沟武

  生处处生威,更有仿佛飘然室外的斋院吸引着来自世界各地的游客慕名而来。到这里,我们第三天的行程也已结束。

  到了第四天,阴沉了三天的天气终于有了放晴的趋向,偶尔透出点光出来,挑逗着登山的行者。首先,我们今天所爬的山名为太室山,不久,便看到第一个观测点——石船,因形似船而得名。山顶滚落而形成的石船大部分为石英岩,平稳的沉积环境造就了大部分平行的磁铁矿黑色线条,部分为纹痕状是由于波浪作用形成波纹沉积后被迅速掩埋起来而形成。

  第二个观测点,我们便来到了由张伯声教授所发现的嵩阳运动遗迹。发生于25亿年前的嵩阳运动是太古宙与元古宙的分界线。下为绢云母石英片岩,上为石英岩,由于构造运动,两者之间形成了角度不整合面。

  沿着栈道一路爬到这座山的最顶峰,我们便来到了今天的第三个观测点——峻极峰峰顶。

  足有1491.76米之高的海拔的峰顶也是因外力作用下形成的巨大夷平面。以石英岩为主体的地貌构造岩性坚硬,难以侵蚀,加之东西向的大断裂,这里的山势极为陡峭。翻过山顶,再走一段山路,我们来到了今天的第四个观测点——嵩山国家气象站。1955年开始建站的它是嵩山地区最权威的气象检测机构。最后,我们来到了第五个观测点——一线天,不到两米宽的裂缝仅能容纳一个人通过,230米长的阶梯相对高度却有60米之高,因此走起来十分陡。

  走着,就到了第六个观测点——卢崖瀑布。沿着山路行至山下,今天的观测任务也就完成。

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  第五天,藏了那么久的太阳终于忍不住探出脑袋来,火辣辣的炙考着大地。抹着汗,我们来到第一个观测点小顶峰南三十米,已经被严重风化的糜棱岩节理早已不明显,却还存在着少量的镜面和阶面。稍作休整,继续往前爬,来到第二个观测点——黄盖峰。隶属于古元古界嵩山群、罗汉洞组的它为飞来峰构造,主要为石英岩。

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  再往北走500米,我们来到了隶属于五指岭组的第三个观测点——黄盖峰北500米。到这里,发现有大量的千枚岩出露。再往上爬,即可来到四、五两个观测点——后沟和后沟小背斜。由于天气十分炎热,测量完节理和岩层的走向、倾向、倾角之后,我们就辗转来到第六个观测点——石淙河。因武则天在告城石淙会饮而得名的它有很多灰黑色的白云质灰岩,岩面上残留有未完全风化的刀刻纹和溶洞坑。最后,我们来到今天的第七个观测点——观星台。内置有测量节气和时间的日晷。到此,倒数第二天的行程也已接近尾声。

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  最后一天,临走前,我们又去了嵩山之行的最后一个观测点——玉皇庙。测量完这个地方的断层产状,为期五天半的登封之行终于结束,4月30日中午12点左右,整装回归,我们踏上了回学校的归程。

  经过近一周的跋山涉水,曾经一直坐在教室里的我们终于离开校园,用双眼目睹那些曾经只印刷在课本里的各种示意图在眼前活过来。登封之行不仅拓宽了我们眼界,更加深了我们学习的兴趣和印象,为我们枯燥而平淡的课堂式学习生活添上了浓墨重彩的一笔。

  The second day, accompanied by the fog and wet air, we first came to the first observation points: Eighteen disc. In front of the steep slope of a hill by the middle of the fault is divided into two parts. According to the same rock dislocation status and upper and lower position, we can judge out in front of the fault and normal fault. The formation of fault plane left for the upper Cambrian formation limestone, right from top to bottom in turn for the upper Cambrian formation limestone, Austrian Ordovician argillaceous limestone, Upper Carboniferous limestone and pairwise between formed parallel unconformity contact relation. Then, under the leadership of the teacher, we use GPS to locate the local, using a compass to measure the fault surface

  And the direction, inclination and inclination of the rock strata. Leave eighteen, follow the teacher's pace, we are attracted to the second observation points of Shaolin Xishan reservoir. Through the reservoir, slope climbing in the west, we came to the site of the typical Zhongyue movement. Came to the mountain, we first saw the big rock with uniform gravel is the bottom conglomerate. As the end of the last cycle and the beginning of another cycle, the bottom conglomerate was formed by the sudden movement of the structure.

  To noon, eat lunch, we traveled to the day of the third observation point quarry (Airport). Apart from the Songshan anticline formed in the Paleoproterozoic granite rock plant here area up to 55 square kilometers of. After a long period of weathering, the ground will form a broad ground of our feet. To be covered in a layer of river, river, floodplain sediments. Therefore, the achievements of the us the piece of clay rich look.

  Then, we saw a distance of about 412 meters above sea level. Behemoth it is rich in quartz, is feldspar, plagioclase, biotite, hornblende minerals, with smooth joint surface and coarse grain explicit crystal structure. Subsequently, we came to the stone factory, and the granite is more uniform block structure, easy to cut, so more used to make building materials. Here, the second day of the trip is also close to the end.

  The third day, April 27th, overcast weather seemed a little inattentive to It is raining cats and dogs. First, we go to San Juan village scenic area, is a steep hillside entrance stairs. Climb nearly seventy or eighty degree level, the face of the mountain pines Moyun, cliffs to tilt. Same oblique double entry

  Sharp edge fold anticline the upper part of the steep, flat bottom, hard rock, extremely resistant to erosion, thus forming unique image of the mountain. Mountain climbing on the edge, "monkey view of the sea, the stone forest toward the sky" Magic Fairy Magic beauty. Continue to walk, you will see the by three groups of different joint overlap of suspended day hole, fissure water leaking from the Shi Kan, cunning. Go forward again, the fairy cave, sky, stone, sky bridge, style. After a morning of climbing, we finally arrived at the second observation points of the Shaolin mountain, which is about two years ago, about the Shaolin movement of the typical ruins. Now before the cliff, we can clearly see by changes to the three layer of rock. They are late Archean wufoshan group hejiazhai group of purple shale, bottom conglomerate, Cambrian Xinji group mark conglomerate clip sandy conglomerate. After the rock, can not go to Songshan's Millennium Temple - Shaolin Temple, today we are the third observation points. Into the first to see the Shaolin square, is a dense monk in Tallinn, and then go forward, Shaolin Kungfu, Wu tower

  Students everywhere seemed more Wai, the outdoor Saiin attracts tourists from all over the world. Here, our third day trip is also over.

  To the fourth day, overcast weather for three days finally has a clear trend, occasionally, revealing light out, teasing mountain walkers. First, today we climb the mountain named Taishi mountain, soon, they see the first observation of Sault, due to the shape of a ship named. The peak tumble and the formation of Sault mostly quartzite, stable sedimentary environment created most parallel magnetite black lines, part of the striated marks is due to wave action is formed after the deposition of the corrugated was rapidly buried and formed.

  The second observation points, we came to the Songyang movement relics discovered by Professor Zhang Bosheng. In 2 billion 500 million years ago Songyang movement is the dividing line between Archean and Proterozoic. As for the sericite quartz schist, quartzite, due to tectonic movement, the angular unconformity formed between the two.

  All the way along the path along the cliff climb to the top of the mountain, we came to today's third observation points, Junji peak.

  Great planation foot 1491.76 meters high altitude peak is due to external force formation. Quartzite is the main tectonic geomorphology lithology hard, difficult to erosion, coupled with a major east-west fault, here the mountain steeply. Over the top of the mountain, and a section of the road, we came to today's fourth observation point - Songshan national weather station. Started in 1955, it is the most authoritative meteorological agency in Songshan. Finally, we came to the fifth observation point - a line day, less than two meters wide cracks can only accommodate a person through, 230 meters long ladder relative height is 60 meters high, so it is very steep.

  Walk, to the sixth observation points - Lu Ya waterfall. Along the road to the mountain, today the observation task is complete.

  The fifth day, hidden for so long the sun finally unbearable Tanchunaodai, burning hot test with the earth. Wiping the sweat, we arrived at the first observation point small peak South 30 meters, has been badly weathered mylonite joints had not obvious, there are still a small amount of order and the mirror surface. A little rest, continue to go up, came to the second observation points -- Huang Gaifeng. Belonging to the Lower Proterozoic Songshan group and Luohandong group it is klippe structure, mainly quartz rock.

  Walk 500 meters further north, we came to belong to Wu Zhi Ling group third observation points, huanggai peak 500 meters north. Here, there are a large number of phyllite exposed. And then climb up, you can come to four, 52 observation points - after the ditch and ditch small. Because the weather was very hot. After the measurement of the joints and rock strike, dip, dip angle, we is removed to the six observation points, stone Conghe. Because Wu City Shi Cong Symposium in prayer and the name of it has a lot of dark gray dolomitic limestone, rock surface residue has not completely weathered knife etched and cave pit. Finally, we came to today's seventh observation points of the observatory. The built-in measurement and time with solar term. Here, the last second days of the trip is also nearing completion.

  At the end of the day, before leaving, we went to the last observation point of the jade emperor temple tour in Songshan. After the measurement of the faults in the place of the occurrence, for a period of five and a half days of Dengfeng, finally came to an end, at noon on April 30 12 o'clock, self-contained regression, we set foot back to school on the return journey.

  After nearly a week of Bashansheshui, who had been sitting in the classroom, we finally left the campus, with eyes and see those once only printed in textbooks of various diagram in front of us alive. Dengfeng not only broadens the our eyes, deeper we learning interest and impression, for our boring and dull classroom learning life add an indelible mark.