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土木工程学院乔斌地质实习总结

发布时间:2016-07-27 09:23:52 点击:

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  土木工程学院

  《工程地质》

  实习报告

  专业:土木工程

  班级:道桥二班

  姓名:乔斌

  学号:5708150028

  本次实习内容为《工程地质》实习,时间为六天,实习地点为登封。实习的过程及内容都有固定的时间规划。工程地质学是地质学的一个分支学科,它是研究人类工程活动与地质环境相互作用的一门学科。其研究目的在于查明建筑地区或建筑场的工程地质条件,分析,预测和评价可能存在和发生的工程地质问题及其对建筑物和地质环境的影响和危害,提出防治不良地质现象的措施,为保证工程建设的合理规划以及建筑物的正确设计,顺利施工和正常使用,提供可靠的地质科学依据。

  一、认识断层,以及登封书院河

  断层是指岩石在构造应力作用下发生断裂,沿断层面两侧的岩块发生明显的相对位移的断裂构造。

  断层的几何要素:1、断层面2、断层线3、断盘4、断距

  断层的分类:1、正断层2、逆断层3、平移断层

  断层的组合类型:1、阶梯状断层2、地堑和地垒3、叠瓦式构造

  地貌上的标志:1、断层涯和断层三角面2、断层湖、断层泉3、错断的山脊,急转的河流4、植物也可作为参考。

  构造上的标志:1、断层破碎带与构造岩2、伴生节理3、牵引褶皱4、擦痕和阶步

  书院河;大致观察可发现,一般情况河内干涸,经了解后得知;在雨季是,该条河内才有少量的水流过,晴天时河内没水,登封市水资源比较匮乏,从河底发现有大量的石英石,在雨季时会有大量的碎石被冲刷下来,大部分都是下雨时从山上冲刷下来,靠近山脚下的岩石不仅大而且棱角鲜明,而远离山脚的岩石表面比较光滑,大部分为一些碎石。在雨季时会有大量的碎石被冲刷下来。

  二、认识褶皱以及了解登封的地形地貌。

  褶皱构造是岩层受到构造运动作用后,在未丧失连续性的情况下产生的永久性弯曲变形

  褶皱的要素;1.核部2.翼部3.轴面4.轴线5.枢纽6.转折端7.脊线8.槽线 褶皱的分类1.直立褶曲2.倾斜褶曲3.倒转褶曲4.平卧褶曲 褶皱构造的类型;由一系列连续的次一级褶皱组成的一个大背斜火大向斜分别称为复背斜和复向斜。 褶皱构造的野外识别;1.穿越法2.追索法

  登封市地形复杂,北有嵩山山脉,南有箕山、熊山山脉,均为东西走向,地势由南北向中间逐渐降低为丘陵河川,依地形大致可分为深山、浅山、丘陵和平地,深山约占流域总面积17%,浅山占30%,丘陵占36%,平地占17%,丘陵坡度多在6°以上,有石质型丘陵和黄土覆盖型丘陵两种,多为南北走向

三、了解嵩山历史和几次构造运动。 【虎坪运动】桑干杂岩、吕梁杂岩、涑水杂岩和登封杂岩都可能代表华北古太古界,而新太古界是五台群。在古新太古代间有广泛的地壳运动发生,形成不整合及沉积间断。河南嵩山、山西中条山和吕梁山均有表现。 【嵩阳运动】新太古代后期的一次褶皱运动。系据河南登封县嵩山群底部石英岩与登封群变质杂岩间的角度不整合确定的,因在嵩山之阳而得名。其发生时间距今25亿年,大致相当于加拿大的基诺尔运动 【中岳运动】发生在嵩山地区古元古代嵩山期沉积之后,新元古代五佛山期沉积以前的一次强烈造山运动。五佛山群呈高角度不整合覆于嵩山群及登封群各组之上,可能发生于距今14亿年左右。中岳运动使整个嵩山群(罗汉涧组、五指岭组、庙坡山组、花峪组)协调一致地产生紧密的走向近南北、轴面向西倾斜、向东倒转的复式背斜和复式向斜。

  四、参观少林水库和了解水库相关知识 少林水库位于河南省登封市城关镇郭店村下游400m处的少林河上,属淮河流域,沙颖河水系,控制流域面积41km2,总库容1154万m3,是一座以防洪为主,兼顾城市供水、灌溉、养殖等综合利用的中型水库。

水库修建的位置非常重要不能建造在力岩和空隙多的地方,其次还要考虑大坝的稳定性,以及在修建大坝是不能影响周围居民的正常生活,另外对大自然也不能产生影响 修建水库队上游下游的水位有影响,会导致河床抬高,影响正常航运。
以及对生物也有影响,修建水库会导致是的自我净化能力大大减弱

  四、了解黄土,观察土墙特点 黄土是最新的地质时期(距今约200万年左右的第四纪时期)形成的土状堆积物,所以其性质比较疏松、特殊。典型的黄土为黄灰色或棕黄色的尘土和粉沙细粒组成,质地均一,以手搓之易成粉末,含多量钙质或黄土结核,多孔隙,有显著的垂直节理,无层理,在干燥时较坚硬,易被流水浸湿,通常容易剥落和遭受侵蚀,甚至发生坍陷。 黄土的物理性质;1.黄土的粒度成分2.黄土的比重和密度3.黄土的含水量 黄土的力学性质;1.黄土的结构性2.黄土的欠压密性3.黄土的压缩性4.黄土的抗剪强度 马兰黄土呈浅灰黄色,疏松、颗粒较均匀,以粉砂为主,呈块状,大孔隙显著,垂直节理发育,偶夹黑垆土型古土壤。层中钙质结核小而少,常零散分布。粘土矿物主要是伊利石、蒙脱石和少量高岭土、针铁矿等。其厚度分布不均匀,从数米到数十米不等。

  五、参观登封地质博物馆

  嵩山地质博物馆是嵩山世界地质公园的重要组成部分,位于河南省登封市城北三公里的嵩山南麓,太室山脚下,座北朝南,北濒伊洛,南环颍河,滨河溪水淙淙缠绕,环境幽雅,四季长青,绿树成荫,是一座充满着璀璨宝矿的宫殿,是欧亚大陆桥上的一颗璀璨的明珠。她浓缩了嵩山地区在不足20平方公里范围内,保存着发生在距今25亿年、18.7亿年、5.43亿年的构造形态遗迹;在嵩山不到400平方公里的范围内完整出露着全球绝无仅有的太古代、元古代、古生代、中生代、新生代五个地质时期的变质岩和沉积岩地层序列精华,被地质学家誉为“五代同堂”的天然地质博物馆。她以历史悠久、典藏量大、珍品率高、陈列精美、科研成果丰硕称雄于亚洲地学博物馆。

  不仅具备典藏、科学研究、社会教育三大传统功能,富有时代特色,融科普、教学、学术交流、观赏、休闲于一体,社会影响日益广泛。

  School of civil engineering

  "Engineering Geology"

  real

  Xi

  newspaper

  Sue

  Major: Civil Engineering

  Class: Class Two Bridges

  Name: Qiao Bin

  Number: 5708150028

  The internship content for the "Engineering Geology" internship, the time is six days, the internship site for Dengfeng. There is a fixed time plan for the process and the content of the practice. Engineering geology is a branch of geology, which is a subject that studies the interaction between human engineering activities and geological environment. The research aims to identify construction area or construction field engineering geological conditions, analysis, prediction and evaluation of possible existence and the occurrence of engineering geological problems and effect and damage to buildings and geological environment, adverse geological phenomenon made prevention and treatment measures, in order to ensure the proper design of construction engineering design reasonable planning and building, smooth construction and normal use, providing reliable geological basis.

  First, the understanding of fault, and the Dengfeng college River

  Fault is the fault of the rock under the action of tectonic stress and the occurrence of obvious relative displacement of rock mass at both sides of the fault plane.

  Geometric elements of the fault: 1, fault plane 2, fault line 3, broken 4, off the distance

  Fault classification: 1, normal fault 2, reverse fault 3, translation fault

  Combination type of fault: 1, ladder 2, 3 faults, grabens and horsts, imbricate structure

  Geomorphic marks: 1, fault career and fault triangular surface 2, fault lake, fault spring 3, fault ridge, whirling river 4, plants can also be as a reference.

  Mark structure: 1, fault fracture zone and tectonic rocks 2, 3 and 4 folds associated with joint traction, scratch and step

  College River; a general observation can be found, usually dry Hanoi, after understanding after that; in the rainy season, the Hanoi only a small amount of water too, sunny day to Hanoi and no water, water resources in Dengfeng city relatively scarce, from the bottom of the river found a lot of quartz stone, in the rainy season will have large amounts of gravel was washed down, most of them are rain from the mountains washed down, near the rocks at the foot of the mountain is not only large and sharp edges and corners, and away from the foot of the rock surface is smooth, the majority of rubble. In the rainy season there will be a lot of debris washed down.

  Two, understanding of the fold and the understanding of the topography of Dengfeng.

  The fold structure is a permanent bending deformation caused by the formation of the rock strata under the condition of no loss of continuity.

  Elements of fold; 6. Turning 5. 4. 1. The core of the 2 wings. Axial plane axis hub end. Ridge. Slot line fold classification 1. Upright fold. Inclined fold. Overfold 4. Recumbent fold fold type; by a series of continuous time level fold consisting of a large anticline fire large syncline are known as anticlinorium and synclinorium. Field identification of fold structure; 2 law of 1

  Dengfeng City complex terrain, the Songshan Mountains in the north, south of Jishan, Bear Mountain, all things to terrain from north and south to the middle decreased gradually as hills and rivers, according to the terrain can be roughly divided into the remote mountain, hilly, peace hilly mountains, accounting for about 17% of the total area basin, accounted for 30% of the shallow, hilly accounted for 36% of the plains account for 17%, hilly slope multi above 6 degree, rocky hills and loess covered hills, North and south to

  Three, to understand the history of Songshan and several tectonic movement. [Hu Ping movement dry mulberry mixed rock, Luliang complex rocks and Precambrian Sushui complex rock and Dengfeng complex may on behalf of North China ancient Archean and late Archean is Wutai Group. There are extensive crustal movement occurred in the ancient new Archean, formation of unconformity and sedimentary discontinuity. Henan, Songshan, Shanxi and Lvliang are Zhongtiaoshan mountain. [a folding movement Neoarchaean late Songyang movement]. According to the Dengfeng Songshan Henan group at the bottom of the quartz and Dengfeng group metamorphic complex from the point of view of the integration of the identified, due to the Songshan in the name of the sun. The 2.5 billion years ago, time, roughly equivalent to the radical Noel movement in Canada [Zhongyue movement occurred after the deposition of Paleoproterozoic Songshan in Mt. Songshan area, Neoproterozoic Foshan five sedimentary period before a strong orogeny. Five Foshan group was a high point of view of the Songshan group and Dengfeng group is not integrated over the group, may occur in about 1 billion 400 million years ago. Zhongyue movement the Songshan group (group Luo Hanjian, five Ling group, temple mountain slope group, Flower Valley Group) coordination comments generated close to the near North and south, axial plane westward tilt, to the east of the reversal of the anticlinorium and compound syncline. Four, visit Shaolin reservoirs and understanding of reservoir related knowledge Shaolin reservoirs in Chengguan town of Dengfeng City of Henan Province, Guo Dian Cun 400m downstream of Shaolin River, belongs to Huai River Basin, Shaying river system, control drainage area 41km2, with a total capacity of 11.54 million m3, is a mainly for flood control, and Gu Cheng City water supply, irrigation, aquaculture and other comprehensive utilization of medium-sized reservoirs.

  Position of the construction of the reservoir is very important to build in force of rock and the gap, followed by also considering the dam stability, and in the construction of the dam is not affecting the normal life of the surrounding residents. In addition to nature can't influence effect of building the reservoir team of upstream and downstream water level, resulting in the riverbed elevation, affect the normal shipping. As well as the impact on the biological, the construction of the reservoir will result in the self purification capacity is greatly weakened

  Four, to understand the loess, observation of the characteristics of the Loess Plateau is the latest geological period (about 2 million years ago, the Quaternary period) formed by the accumulation of soil, so its nature is relatively loose, special. Typical loess to grayish yellow or brown yellow dust and silt fine particles, uniform texture, to hand rub easily made into powder, containing more than the amount of calcium or loess tuberculosis, porous, significant vertical joints, no bedding, when dry, relatively hard, easy to be soaked in water, are usually easy to spalling and suffered erosion, or even collapse. Physical properties of loess; 3. The proportions and the densities of the loess grain size composition. Loess loess containing water of loess mechanical properties; loess structural. Loess undervoltage dense. Loess compression. Loess shear strength of Malan loess is pale grayish yellow, loose, granular is uniform, dominated by silt, a massive, large pore significantly, joint development of vertical, accidentally clip type of dark loessial soil paleosol. Calcareous nodules in the layer are small and few, and are often scattered. The main clay minerals are illite, montmorillonite and a small amount of kaolin, needle iron ore and so on. The thickness distribution is not uniform, ranging from a few meters to tens of meters.

  Five, visit the Dengfeng Geological Museum

  Songshan geology museum is an important part of Songshan World Geological Park, located in Dengfeng City, Henan Province, north of the city three kilometers south Songshan, at the foot of Taishi, seat north to south, bordering the North Yiluo, Nan Huan Ying River and riparian stream gurgling winding, elegant environment, four seasons evergreen, trees is a full of bright treasure ore palace, the Eurasian Continental Bridge on the bright pearl. She concentrated in Mt. Songshan area within the range of less than 20 square kilometers, the preservation of the occurred in 25 million years ago, 18.7 billion years, 543 million years of structural morphology of trace; in Songshan less than 400 square kilometers within the scope of a complete revealing the unique in the world of Archean, Yuan ancient, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, the new generation of five geological period of metamorphic rocks and sedimentary strata sequence essence, geologists known as "five generations of natural geological museum. She has a long history, large volume, high rate of collection of treasures, display exquisite and fruitful research results dominate the geological museum in asia.

  Not only have collection, scientific research and social education of the three major traditional function, rich characteristics of the times, financial science, teaching and academic exchanges, ornamental, leisure in one, the social influence is more and more widely.